:: Inference Engine

Dictionary



Type Word Relation Definition superscript subject object
Contents
Atomic Relations
Atomic Conceptsⁿ, properties and indexicals
Level One Molecules
Wild Disjunctions
Names of Signs
Atomic Synonyms
Axioms of Identity
Axioms
Axioms that Must be Worked On
Ontology
Connectives
Connective Synonyms
Irregular Definitions
Redundant Words
Hard-Coded Symbols
Numbers
Determinatives
Determinative Synonyms
Pronouns
Relations, Nouns, Adverbs and Adjectives
Words not of metaphysical interest
Plurals
People
Alternative Word Forms
Artificial Sentences
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. Atomic Relations
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rat above AB relates points
rat after A relates moments
rat afterˡ AL relates letters
afterⁿ G relates numbers, e.g. 4 is after 3
rat afterʳ AR relates the relata and relations in a relationship
afterʳ e.g. In the relationship 'there are dogs', 'are' is after 'there'
rat areᵃ J relates a thing to a property in adjective form
rat areᵍ I relates an instance to a concept
rais at S relates a void or a particle to a point
rat atⁱ M relates a relationship to an imagination
atᵖ P relates a thing to a possible world
rat atˢ O relates a sensation to a point in the sensorium
rais atᵗ T relates a thing to a moment
rai atʸ Z relates a thing to a two-dimensional point
atʸ e.g. a pointᵃ is a two-dimensional point. This is only needed for plane geometry
r believe B ((b B c) → (c I d)) & (d=relationship)
rai desire D relates a mind to a desire
rai hasʷ W relates a whole to a part, or a group to a member
ra have H relates a thing to a property in noun form
in front of F relates points rats
rat inˡ IL relates a relationship to a language
rat instantiateⁿ N relates a set to a number
rat inᵘ U relates a possible world to a possible universe
rai isᵛ V relates a thing to a property in adverb form
rai isʸ Y relates a thing to a property which is equivalent to a determiner
rats left of L relates points
think about C relates a mind to a thing
think about e.g. If I think about 'there are alien logicians on other planets' it doesn't follow that I believe there are alien logicians on other planets. C was chosen because 'contemplate' is synonymous with 'think about'.
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. Atomic Concepts, Properties and Indexicals
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aa consistent (b=consistent) & ((c J b) → (c I d)) & ((c J b) → (c P d)) & (((c ~ J b) & (e I f)) → (c ~ P f)) & (d=relationship) & (f=possible world)
consistent e.g. If 'consistent' is a property of p, then p is a relationship.
na energy (b=energy) & (((c H d) & (d I b)) → (c S e))
energy e.g. If b has [some] energy then b [exists] at a point in space. The converse does not hold since there could be a void of space with no energy in it.
aa extant (b=extant) → (c J b)
extant e.g. If c is an abbreviation of 'extant' then c is a property.
na here (b=here) → (c S b)
here e.g. If c is an abbreviation of 'here' then c is a point.
aa many (b=many) & ((c J b) → (c W d)) & (((c J b) & (d ~ J b) & (c N e) & (d N f)) → (e G f)) & (((g ~ J b) & (g N h)) → (h G j)) & (j=1)
many e.g. If b is many, then b is a group. And if b is many and d is not many then b [exists] atⁿ e [in numerical space] and d [exists] atⁿ f [in numerical space] and e [is] greater than f.
na now (b=now) → (c T b)
now e.g. If c is an abbreviation of 'now' then c is a moment.
aa real (b=real) → ((c J b) & (d P c))
real e.g. If c is an abbreviation of real then c is the property of a possible world.
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. Atomic Symbols
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& (logical 'and')
(b⇒c) means wherever we see b we may replace it with c but not vice-versa
If the symbols to the left of ⇨ are written on a line, then we may write the symbol to the right of ⇨ on a different line
The symbol to the left of ⇿ is an abbreviation of the symbols on the right which are relationships
ra = (b=c) means wherever we see b we may replace it with c and vice-versa
¬ (¬p → (pIc)) & (c=relationship) & (qJd) & (q⇿p&¬p) & (d=consistent)
ma ~ (~p → (pIc)) & (c=relationship) & (qJd) & (q⇿p&~p) & (d=contradictory)
If we have (b≍c) on line 3 and SUB 2,3 in the justification section then only in line 2 may we replace b with c but not vice versa.
m^ If the symbols to the left or the right of m^ are written on a line, then we may write the symbols on the other side of m^ on a different line.
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. Level 1 Molecules (New)
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. e.g. the following are defined as being the subject or object of an atomic relation. Right now these definitions have not been coded for and the old definitions are still used for arguments.
belief (b=belief) & ((c I b) ≡ ((d W e.c) & (e=B) & (c AR e) & (d J f))) & (f=basicʳ)
conceptⁿ (b=conceptⁿ) & ((c I b) ≡ ((d W e.c) & (e=I) & (c AR e) & (d J f))) & (f=basicʳ)
contradictory (b=contradictory) & ((c J b) ≡ (c ~ J d)) & (d=consistent)
imagination (b=belief) & ((c I b) ≡ ((d W e.c) & (e=M) & (c AR e) & (d J f))) & (f=basicʳ)
instance (b=instance) & ((c I b) ≡ ((d W e.c) & (e=I) & (e AR c) & (d J f))) & (f=basicʳ)
integer (b=integer) & ((c I b) ≡ ((d W e.c) & (((e=N) & (c AR e)) ⊻ ((e=G) & (e AR c)) ⊻ ((e=G) & (c AR e))) & (d J f))) & (f=basicʳ)
letter (b=letter) & ((c I b) ≡ ((d W e.c) & (((e=AL) & (c AR e)) ⊻ ((e=AL) & (e AR c))) & (d J f))) & (f=basicʳ)
letter e.g. It is very important to keep in mind that the AL relation relates letters when they refer to other letters. Normally, we use letters to refer to non-letters. So when I say (b=leibniz) & (b RAN), 'b' refers to a non-letter, but when I say 'Boston begins with 'b'', then I would have to say that (b refers to 'b')
mind (b=mind) & ((c I b) ≡ ((d W e.c) & (((e=B) & (e AR c)) ⊻ ((e=D) & (e AR c))) & (d J f))) & (f=basicʳ)
moment (b=moment) & ((c I b) ≡ ((d W e.c) & (((e=T) & (c AR e)) ⊻ ((e=A) & (e AR c)) ⊻ ((e=A) & (c AR e))) & (d J f))) & (f=basicʳ)
part (b=part) & ((c I b) ≡ ((d W e.c) & (e=W) & (c AR e) & (d J f))) & (f=basicʳ)
point (b=integer) & ((c I b) ≡ ((d W e.c) & (((e=S) & (c AR e)) ⊻ ((e=AB) & (e AR c)) ⊻ ((e=AB) & (c AR e)) ⊻ ((e=L) & (e AR c)) ⊻ ((e=L) & (c AR e)) ⊻ ((e=F) & (e AR c)) ⊻ ((e=F) & (e AR c))) & (d J f))) & (f=basicʳ)
pointᵇ (b=integer) & ((c I b) ≡ ((d W e.c) & (((e=Z) & (c AR e)) ⊻ ((e=L) & (e AR c)) ⊻ ((e=L) & (c AR e)) ⊻ ((e=F) & (e AR c)) ⊻ ((e=F) & (e AR c))) & (d J f))) & (f=basicʳ)
pointᵇ e.g. a pointᵇ is located in two-dimensional space.
pointˢ (b=pointsˢ) & ((c I b) ≡ ((d W e.c) & (e=O) & (c AR e) & (d J f))) & (f=basicʳ)
pointˢ e.g. When someone says 'I have pain here' the point where the pain exists does not exist in physical space, but in what I call the sensorium which is composed of all pointsˢ
possible world (b=possible world) & ((c I b) ≡ ((d W e.c) & (e=P) & (c AR e) & (d J f))) & (f=basicʳ)
propertyᵃ (b=propertyᵃ) & ((c I b) ≡ ((d W e.c) & (e=J) & (c AR e) & (d J f))) & (f=basicʳ)
propertyᵈ (b=propertyᵈ) & ((c I b) ≡ ((d W e.c) & (e=IZ) & (c AR e) & (d J f))) & (f=basicʳ)
propertyᵈ e.g. the only reason why we have introduced this concept is because for every word we need an answer as to what category it belongs to. So the determiners are properties. For example, 'the man walked' is equivalent to 'b walked and b is a man and b is definite'. The same goes for adverbs.
propertyⁿ (b=propertyⁿ) & ((c I b) ≡ ((d W e.c) & (e=H) & (c AR e) & (d J f))) & (f=basicʳ)
propertyᵛ (b=propertyᵛ) & ((c I b) ≡ ((d W e.c) & (e=V) & (c AR e) & (d J f))) & (f=basicʳ)
sensation (b=sensation) & ((c I b) ≡ ((d W e.c) & (e=O) & (e AR c) & (d J f))) & (f=basicʳ)
whole (b=whole) & ((c I b) ≡ ((d W e.c) & (e=W) & (c AR e) & (d J f))) & (f=basicʳ)
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. Level 1 Molecules (old)
.
n conceptᵐ (b=conceptᵐ) & ((c I b) ≡ (d I c)) & ((c I b) → (c I e)) & ((c I b) ≡ ((c W f) & (f I g) & (f W h))) & (e=non-whole) & (g=definiendum) & (h=I)
n conceptⁿ (b=conceptⁿ) & ((c I b) ≡ (d I c)) & ((c I b) → (c I e)) & ((c I b) ≡ ((c H f) & (f I g) & (f W h))) & (e=non-whole) & (g=definiendum) & (h=I)
conceptⁿ e.g. Get rid of the above soon
n imagination (b=imagination) & ((c I b) ≡ (d M c)) & ((c I b) → (c I e)) & (e=non-relationship)
n instance (b=instance) & ((c I b) ≡ (c I d))
n instanceⁱ (b=instanceⁱ) & (((c I b) & (c OF d)) ≡ ((c I d) & (c I e))) & (e=instance)
n integer (b=integer) & ((c I b) ≡ (c G d)) & ((c I b) ≡ (e G c)) & ((c I b) ≡ (f N c)) & ((c I b) → (c I g)) & (g=non-whole)
n letter (b=letter) & ((c I b) ≡ ((d P e) & (f P g))) & ((c I b) → (c I h)) & (j I b) & (d ⇿ c AL j) & (f ⇿ (k I b) → (k ~ AL c)) & (h=non-whole)
n mind (b=mind) & ((c I b) ≡ (c B d)) & ((c I b) ≡ (c D e))
n moment (b=moment) & ((c I b) ≡ (d T c)) & ((c I b) ≡ (c A e)) & ((c I b) ≡ (f A c)) & ((c I b) → (c I g)) & (g=non-whole)
n part (b=part) & ((c I b) ≡ (d W c))
n particle (b=particle) & ((c I b) ≡ (c S d)) & ((c I b) ≡ (e T f)) & ((c I b) → (c I g)) & (g=non-whole) & (f=now) & (e ⇿ c S d)
particle e.g. the above is an old definition and will be gotten rid of in newer versions. The new definitions is particleⁿ found in the section relations, adverbs, nouns and adjectives.
n partᵖ (b=partᵖ) & (((c I b) & (c OF d)) ≡ (d W c))
n point (b=point) & ((c I b) ≡ (d S c)) & ((c I b) ≡ (e AB c)) & ((c I b) ≡ (c AB f)) & ((c I b) ≡ (g F c)) & ((c I b) ≡ (c F h)) & ((c I b) ≡ (j L c)) & ((c I b) ≡ (c L k)) & ((c I b) → (c I m)) & (m=non-whole)
n pointᵇ (b=pointᵇ) & ((c I b) ≡ (d Z c)) & ((c I b) ≡ (e AB c)) & ((c I b) ≡ (c AB f)) & ((c I b) ≡ (g L c)) & ((c I b) ≡ (c L h)) & ((c I b) → (c I j)) & (j=non-whole)
pointᵇ e.g. the difference between pointᵇ and point is that pointᵇ exists in 2 dimensional space whereas point exists in three dimensional space
n possible world (b=possible world) & ((c I b) ≡ (d P c))
n property (b=property) & ((c I b) ≡ (d J c)) & ((c I b) → (c I e)) & (e=non-whole)
n propertyᵈ (b=propertyᵈ) & ((c I b) ≡ (d IY c)) & ((c I b) → (c I e)) & (e=non-whole)
propertyᵈ e.g. In 'the man walked', 'the' is a propertyᵈ of man in that it means he is an individual
n propertyⁿ (b=propertyⁿ) & ((c I b) ≡ (d H c)) & ((c I b) → (c I e)) & (e=non-whole)
n propertyᵛ (b=propertyᵛ) & ((c I b) ≡ (d V c)) & ((c I b) → (c I e)) & (e=non-whole)
propertyᵛ e.g. In 'p isᵛ always true, 'always' is a propertyᵛ of p.
aa real (c=real) & ((b J c) → (d P b))
n sensation (b=sensation) & ((c I b) ≡ (c O d)) & ((c I b) → (c I e)) & (e=non-whole)
n thought (b=thought) & ((c I b) ≡ (d B c))
n whole (b=whole) & ((c I b) ≡ (c W d))
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. Wild Disjunctions
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. e.g. The term wild disjunction comes from Fodor's the Language of Thought who wrote: banal considerations suggest that a physical description which covers all such events must be wildly disjunctive. We chose the term not because we thought he was making a good point but because it sounds so funny. In any case, a wild disjunction is essentially a list. So the definition of a noun is just a long disjunction, b is a noun iff b is a dog or b is a cat or b is a house etc etc.
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na abbreviation b c d e f g h j k m n o p q r s t u v x y z a::1 b::1 etc
na adjective If the first letter in the first column is a, then the word is an adjective
na adverb If the first letter in the first column is e, then the word is an adjective
na constant
na determiner If the first letter in the first column is d, then the word is a determiner
na logical connective & → ≡ ⊻ ∨ #
na noun If the first letter in the first column is n, then the word is a noun
na possessive pronoun If the second letter in the first column is c, then the word is a pronoun
na pronoun If the first letter in the first column is p, then the word is a pronoun
na relation If the first letter in the first column is r, then the word is a relation
na relatum
na variable
na word
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. Names of Signs
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assumed biconditional sign
assumed conditional sign
biconditional signs ≡ j^⊢
conditional signs → ⊢
conjunction sign &
connective reduction sign m^
consistency sign z^
consistent negation sign ¬
contingent identity sign \\
contradictory negation sign ~
contradictory sign
exclusive disjunction sign
identity signs ⇿ =
in sentence conjunction sign [period]
inclusive disjunction sign
inference sign
instantiation sign
justified biconditional sign j^⊢
justified conditional sign
negation signs ~ ¬
non-sentential identity sign =
sentential identity sign
translation sign
unrelated sign #
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. Relational Particles
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. e.g. these words simply inform the reader of the relations between objects. Although not defined, they are not considered atomic since they appear in the definiendum of certain words and do not reappear in the definiens.
ratab of OF
ratab to TO
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. Atomic Synonyms
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as actual (actual=real)
a actualᵖ (b=actualᵖ) & (c=reality) & ((d J b) ≡ (d E c)) statement
a actualʷ (b=actualʷ) & ((c J b) ≡ (c=reality)) possible world
actualʷ e.g. we are living in the actualʷ world.
ns agglomeration (agglomeration = whole)
ns attribute (attribute = property)
r belong to BLN (b BLN c) ≡ (c W b)
rs belongᵍ (belongᵍ=I)
ns body (body=particle)
ns categoryᶜ (categoryᶜ=conceptⁿ)
ns character trait (character trait = property)
ns characteristic (characteristic=property)
ns class (class = conceptⁿ)
class e.g. Mammals form a class.
ns class concept (class concept=conceptⁿ)
classʷ e.g. There is a classʷ of people over there.
ns classʷ (classʷ = whole)
ns collection (collection = whole)
conceptᵃ e.g. The conceptᵃ 'red' is hard to define iff the property 'red' is hard to define.
ns conceptᵃ (conceptᵃ = property)
ns condition (condition=property)
condition e.g. He is in a miserable condition.
conscious of e.g. b is conscious of 'there are dogs' iff b thinks about 'there are dogs'.
ns consciousness (consciousness=mind)
r exist EX (exist =EX) & ((b EX) ≡ (b J c)) & (c=extant)
n existence (b=existence) & ((c H b) ≡ (c J d)) & (d=extant)
existence e.g. Anne Hathaway has existence iff Anne Hathaway is extant
ns feature (feature=property)
ns group (group = whole)
group e.g. There is a group of mammals over there.
groupᶜ e.g. Mammals form a groupᶜ.
ns groupᶜ (groupᶜ = conceptⁿ)
rs instantiate (instantiate=I)
instantiate e.g. Obama instantiates president iff Obama isᵍ a president.
r instantiated by INSP (instantiated by =INSP) & ((b INSP c) ≡ (c I b))
instantiated by e.g. President in 2015 is instantiated by Obama.
ra inᵗ (inᵗ=P)
inᵗ e.g. Matter exists inᵗ possible world d iff matter exists atᵖ possible world d
ns item (item=thing)
as logically possible (logically possible = consistent)
a material (b=material) & (c=particle) & ((d J b) ≡ (d I c))
a materialᵐ (b=materialᵐ) & (((c J b) & (d I c)) ≡ (d S e))
ns materialⁿ (materialⁿ=matter)
ns matter (matter=particle)
member e.g. She is a member of this group of cats.
ns member (member = part)
memberⁱ e.g. This cat is a memberⁱ of the group 'cat'.
ns memberⁱ (memberⁱ = instance)
ns mental whole (mental whole = thought)
n mindᵇ (b=mindᵇ) & ((c I b) ≡ ((c W d.e.f) & (d I g) & (e I h) & (f I j))) & (g=mind) & (h=imagination) & (j=sensorium)
as naturalᵖ (naturalᵖ = material)
ns numberⁱ (numberⁱ=integer)
ns object (object=thing)
n partᶠᵃ (b=partᶠᵃ) & ((c I b) ≡ (c I d)) & (d=fact)
partᶠᵃ e.g. The fact 'there areᵉ dogs' isᵍ aʳ partᶠᵃ ofᶠᵃ reality.
n partⁱ (b=partⁱ) & ((c I b) ≡ (c I d)) & (d=thought)
partⁱ e.g. 'Hamlet isᵉ here' isᵍ aʳ partⁱ ofⁱᵐ my imagination.
n partʷ (b=partʷ) & ((c I b) ≡ (c I d)) & (d=possible relationship)
partʷ e.g. The relationship 'men land on Mars inᵈ 2050' isᵍ aʳ partʷ ofᵖʷ some possible world.
as physical (physical=material)
as physicalᶜ (physicalᶜ = materialᶜ)
as physicalᵐ (physicalᵐ = materialᵐ)
aa possible (b=possible) & ((pJb) ≡ (pPc))
ns present (present = now)
ns qualia (qualia=sensation)
r right of RT (right of =RT) & ((b RT c) ≡ (c L b))
ns set (set = whole)
timeᵐ e.g. At what timeᵐ did you see him?
ns timeᵐ (timeᵐ=moment)
ns trait (trait = property)
ns universal (universal = conceptⁿ)
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. Axioms of Identity
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. Because we cannot believe two objects are distinct just because they have the most trivial of differences, we instead must simply state what our rules are for under what circumstances the same letter can appear in what positions of the atomic relations.
. In short, if it is not explicitly prohibited then the same object can exist in different positions of the atomic relations so long as no category errors are committed. For the following it is always assumed that the objects exist in the same possible universe.
. (((b S c P d T e) & (f I g)) → (f ~ S c P d T e)) & (g=particle ⊻ void)
. e.g. Two different particles cannot exist at the same point at the same time in the same possible world.
. (((b S c P d T e) & (f I g)) → (b ~ S f P d T e)) & (g=point)
. e.g. The same particle cannot exist at different points in space at the same time in the same possible world.
. (((b N c P d T e) & (f I g)) ⊢ (b ~ N f P d T e)) & (f=integer)
. e.g. The same object cannot be counted by different numbers at the same time in the same possible world. This claim might be provable.
. (((b P c T d) & (e I f)) → (b ~ P c T e)) & (e=moment)
. e.g. The same possible world cannot exist at different times.
. ((b O c) & (d I e) & (f I g)) → ((d ~ O c) & (b ~ O f))
. e.g. The same sensation cannot exist in different sensoriums and the same sensational point cannot be occupied by different sensations.
.
. Axioms
.
1 ((b c J d) & (b ¬c ~ J d) & (b E e) ⇨ (c E e)) & (d=consistent)
1 e.g. What the symbol ⇨ means is that if the symbols on the left are written on a line, then we may add the symbol on the right on another line. (parentheses are not used as normal since it is always a main connective)
2 (((b W c) & (b B d T e)) → (d E f T e)) & (d ⇿ g O c)
2 e.g. you cannot be wrong about what exists in your sensorium at present.
2.1 (((b W c) & (b B d T e)) → (d E f T e)) & (d ⇿ g M c)
2.1 e.g. you cannot be wrong about what exists in your imagination at present. Note that there are two meanings of the word imagination. The 'Imagination' of b is simply the set of all of b's beliefs. MacBeth only sees a knife in his imaginationʰ is a different sense of the word and it might be synonymous with the sensorium but we haven't given much thought to the distinction between sensorium and imagination.
3 ((b HS c T d) ≡ (c W e)) & ((f HS g T h) ≡ (g W j)) & ((k W m) ≡ ((c W m) & (g W m))) & ((n W o) ≡ (((c W o) ⊻ (g W o)) & (h SUT d)) → ((k J p) & (n J q))) & (p=many) & (q=few) & (b=reality|1) & (f=reality|2)
3 e.g. we assume that the future will be like the past. Group c is all the properties reality has at time d, and group e is all the properties reality has at time f and group k is the group of all those properties shared by both c and e and group n is all the properties that either c has or e has but not both and group k is a large group and group n is a small group.
4 (b=extant) & ((c J b Q d) ≡ (c I e)) & (e=thing)
4 e.g. every object which is referred to in our dictionary exists at a certain place but of course not in every place. The Q relation is a variable spatiotemporal relation.
5 ((b J c) → ((d J c) & (e J c) & (f J c) & (g J c) & (h J c) & (j J c) & (k J c))) & ((m P n) → (o P n)) & (m ⇿ (o I p) → (q~=b)) & (o ⇿ (r I p) → ((r ~ I d) & (r ~ I e) & (r ~ I f) & (r ~ I g) & (r ~ I h) & (r ~ I j) & (r ~ I k))) & (d=point) & (c=extant) & (e=moment) & (p=thing) & (f=number) & (g=property) & (h=whole) & (j=relation) & (k=concept) & (b=C)
5 e.g. If the relation 'think' exists, then points, moment, number, property, wholes, relations and concepts exist and if the relation 'think' does not exist in possible world t then points, moments, number, property, wholes, relations and concepts does not exist in possible world t.
6 (((b P c T d) & (c J e)) → (d=now)) & (e=real)
6 e.g. The actual world exists now.
8 (b D c P d T e) → (c ~ P d T e)
9 ((b O c) & (d W c P e)) → ((b P e) & (c P e))
10 (((b M c) & (d W c P e)) # (b ~ P e)) & (((b M c) & (d W c P e)) → (c ~ P e))
11 (b W c P d) → (b P d)
12 (((b A c P d) ⊻ (b B c P d)) → (b P d))
13 ((b S c) → ((c P d) & (b P d)))
14 (b → (i B b E c))
14 e.g. for any line in our arguments unless we specifically state otherwise, it is always assumed that we believe our relationships exist in reality. From this we can deduce that none of our consequences exist in reality but that we merely believe they exist in reality.
15 (((b D c) & (b W d)) → (e M d)) & (c ⇿ e M d)
15 e.g. whatever I desire to be true in my imagination is true in my imagination
16 (((b D c T d) & (e ~ P f T g) & ((d A g) ⊻ (g=c))) → (e ~ P f T g)) & (e ⇿ c P f T g) & (d=now)
16 e.g. what I desire to be true in the present or in the past, even if it's in my imagination is not true now. For example, you can't desire ice-cream if you already have ice-cream.
17 (((b D c T d) & (c ~=e) & (f SUT d)) → ((g E h T f) ⊻ (g ~ E h T f))) & (c ⇿ g E h T f) & (e ⇿ (g M j T f) & (b W h T f))
17 e.g. If I desire something to be true at a time in the future, then when that time becomes present, it doesn't follow that it will be true.
18 (((b W c) ≡ (c I d T e)) → (b N f)) & (d=possible world)
18 e.g. for every moment of time there are a finite number of possible worlds in a single universe. It should be noted that only finite numbers can exist in the object position of the N relation.
19 (((d W e) ≡ (((e I c) & (e H k))) & (d N f)) → (((e I c) ≡ (e H k)) ⊻ ((h W e) ≡ ((e I c) & (e H j) & (h N m) & (m G f))) & (c=possible universe) & (d=moment)
19 e.g. if d is a set of possible universes either d is the set of all possible universes or there is a larger set of possible universes. More to point, we just don't know if the number of possible universes is infinite or not or if there is more than one. This axiom was somewhat hard to write, because in our system the subject of the W relation must also stand in the subject of the N relation and the object of the N relation must be finite. Further, the instances of a concept are infinite since the instances of the concept 'woman' includes those instances which exist in the imagination and in the future. So what we had to do was say that either there is a finite set of all possible universes or for every finite set there is another set larger than it.
20 ((b W c) → (b N d)) & ((d=d) ⊻ (d G e)) & (d=2)
20 e.g. every whole has at least two parts
21 ((b W c) → (((d I e) & (b W d)) ≡ (d R f))) & (e=thing)
21 e.g. what this means is that we only use the W relation for those groups which are composed of members who have a common property which the rest of existence does not have. If we are talking about arbitrary groups then we need to use a different relation.
22 (((b ~ J c Q d) & (e I f Q d)) → ((e ~ R b Q d) & (b ~ R e Q d))) & (f=thing) & (c=extant)
22 e.g. if b does not exist in d then b has no relation to anything that exists in d
23 ((b R c) & (d R e)) → ((b R c P d U e T f IL g) & (d R e P d U e T f IL g))
23 e.g. unless we state otherwise we always assume that our relationships are true in the same possible world in the same possible universe at the same time in the same language.
24 (((b P c U d T e) & (c J f) & (g I h)) → (g ~ J f U d T e)) & (f=real) & (h=possible world) & (e=now)
24 e.g. There is only one real world at one time in one possible universe at present
25 ((b P c U d T e) & (c J f)) → ((g W h) ≡ ((j P h U d T j) & (h J f) & (j SUT e))) & (f=real) & (e=now)
25 e.g. If c is real now then there is a set of possible worlds which can be real in the future
26 (((b W c) & (c B d)) ≡ ((b W e) & (e I f))) & (f=particle)
26 e.g. b has a mind iff b has a particle
27 ((b R c) → (b ~ I d)) & (d=whole)
27 e.g. We always assume an abbreviation is not a group unless explicitly stated otherwise
28 ((b ~ I c) → (b N d)) & (d=1) & (c=whole)
28 e.g. If b is not a group then b instantiates the number one
29 ((b W c) & (b R d)) → ((b W e) → (e R d))
29 e.g. If group b has the R relation to c then we always assume that every member of b has the R relation to c unless we explicitly state otherwise
30 (b B c) # (c P d)
31 e.g. Normally, we express the fact that two relations are unrelated by simply not stating explicitly in our dictionary that they are related, but with the B and the P relation it is very important to state that they are unrelated.
.
. Axioms that Must be Worked On
.
. (((b H c) & (d B b T e)) → (b E f T e)) & (b ⇿ d B b) & (e=now)
. e.g. The problem with this axiom is we do not know what c is. In some cases, if you believe something at time 1 that you can be certain that you believe it at time 1. Blind sight is a counterexample to this axiom since when asked if there is a mailbox in front of them, blindsighters will say 'no' but when ask to put the envelope in the mailbox they can carry out this task. We need to find a way to determine what property a belief must have so that it is axiomatic that whoever believes it, it follows that it is true that they believe it.
.
. Ontology
.
. e.g. The first line is pronounced as 'x is a thing iff x is either a universal or a particular.
. We were not able to fit wholes neatly into our ontology so for the objects more general than 'whole' we had to simply state whether or not they were whole or not.
. thing ≡ universal ⊻ particular
. universal ≡ relation ⊻ class-concept ⊻ property
. property ≡ noun property ⊻ adjective property ⊻ determinative property ⊻ adverbial property ⊻ relationship property
. determinative property ≡ number ⊻ other
. particular ≡ relationship ⊻ non-relationship
. relationship ≡ fact ⊻ falsehood ⊻ fiction
. non-relationship ≡ whole ⊻ non-whole
. non-whole ≡ letter ⊻ symbol ⊻ mind ⊻ moment ⊻ particle ⊻ void ⊻ point ⊻ God ⊻ instantiated property ⊻ instantiated relation ⊻ sensation
. whole ≡ arbitrary whole ⊻ sensorium ⊻ possible world ⊻ imagination ⊻ spatial whole ⊻ temporal whole ⊻ material whole ⊻ symbolic whole
. temporal whole ≡ unique event ⊻ process
. possible world ≡ reality ⊻ unreality
. universal → non-whole
. relationship → whole
.
. Connectives
.
. When the following appear between parentheses for coding reasons we use the capital letters seen to the right of the non-literal symbols. So instead of p → q we write p IM q if it should be part of a definition.
. For the following definitions, these constants will be used: (r⇿p&q) & (s⇿p&¬q) & (t⇿¬p&q) & (u⇿¬p&¬q) & (c=consistent) & (d=contingent)
# UR (p # q) m^ ((r J c) & (s ~ J c) & (t J c) & (u J c) & (p.¬p.q.¬q J c))
IM (p → q) m^ ((r J c) & (s ~ J c) & (t J c) & (u J c) & (p.¬p.q.¬q J c))
OR (p ∨ q) m^ ((r J c) & (s J c) & (t J c) & (u ~ J c) & (p.¬p.q.¬q J c))
IFF (p ≡ q) m^ ((r J c) & (s ~ J c) & (t ~ J c) & (u J c) & (p.¬p.q.¬q J c))
EN The difference between ⊢ and → is that ⊢ can be justified whereas → is used for definitions and axioms. But coming up with a definition of a definition has not yet been accomplished.
NF
XR (p ⊻ q) m^ ((r ~ J c) & (s J c) & (t J c) & (u ~ J c) & (p.¬p.q.¬q J c))
because (because p, q) ≡ (p & (p ⊢ q))
.
. Connective Synonyms
.
entails (entails = ⊢)
hence (hence = ⊢)
implies (implies=⊢)
is =
isᵇ (isᵇ = ⇿)
isᵇ e.g. p isᵇ Dogs exist.
isⁱ (isⁱ = ≡)
isⁱ e.g. To be isⁱ to be the value of a variable reduces to something exists iff something is the value of a variable and isⁱ is synonymous with iff.
meanᵉ (meanᵉ = ≡)
meansˢ (meansˢ = =)
meansᵗ (meansᵗ = ⊢)
not follow (not follow = ⊬)
since (since = because)
so (so = ⊢)
synonymous with (synonymous with = = )
synonymous with e.g. red is synonymous with crimson.
synonymousᵖ with (synonymousᵖ with = ≡)
synonymousᵖ with e.g. The phrase There are dogs is synonymous with dogs exist.
then (then = ⊢)
thenᵃ (thenᵃ = →)
therefore (therefore = ⊢)
thus (thus = ⊢)
.
. Irregular Definitions
.
ya thatᶜ (it J p thatᶜ q) ≡ (qJp)
thatᶜ e.g. It is true thatᶜ there are dogs iff 'there are dogs' is true.
na thatⁿ (thatⁿ = thisⁿ)
thatⁿ e.g. thatⁿ was what I saw. (here 'that' functions as a noun)
ua thatᵒ hard coded
us thatˢ (thatˢ = which)
nt there (there EX b) ≡ (b EX)
there e.g. There are dogs.
na thisⁿ (thisⁿ Rc) ≡ (bRc)
thisⁿ e.g. thisⁿ was what I saw. (here 'this' functions as a noun)
ua whereⁱ hardcoded - (bRc whereⁱ dQf) ≡ ((bRc) & (dQf INE c))
ua which (bRc which Qd) ≡ ((bRc) & (cQd))
which e.g. I saw a man who thought iff I saw a man and he thought.
ua whichᵒ hard coded
ua who ((bRc who Qd) ≡ ((bRc) & (cQd) & (bIe))) & (e=person)
ua whom hard coded
ua whoᵒ hard coded
.
. Redundant Words
.
aa actualᵍ redundant
actualᵍ e.g. That is an actual duck iff that is a duck
tas andʳ redundant
ta anʳ redundant
ta redundant
ta beʳ redundant
ta did redundant
ta do redundant
ta does redundant
ta each other redundant
ta if redundant
ta in commonʳ redundant
ta inʳ redundant
ta isʳ redundant
ta itʳ redundant
ta itselfʳ redundant
ta ofʳ redundant
ta onʳ redundant
ta particular redundant
ta realᵍ redundant
ta same redundant
same e.g. I studied the same logic as Leibniz. Marilyn and I have the same name.
ta thatʳ redundant
ta thenʳ redundant
ta theʳ redundant
ta toʳ redundant
ta wasʳ redundant
ta willʳ redundant
.
. Hard-Coded Symbols
.
(period) (b.cRd) ≡ ((bRd) & (cRd))
ra ~= (b~=c) means we may not replace b with c and vice-versa
ca andᶜ (b andᶜ c R d) ≡ (b.cRd)
ma not (not = ~)
rat not equal to (not equal to = ~=)
ma notⁱ (notⁱ = ¬)
rai R R variable relation
.
. Numbers
.
na 0 ((b=0) ≡ ((cGb) & (bGe))) & (c=1) & (e=1)
nu 1 ((b=1) ≡ ((c G b) & (b G d))) & (c=2) & (d=0)
nu 2 ((b=2) ≡ ((c G b) & (b G d))) & (c=3) & (d=1)
na 3 ((b=3) ≡ ((cGb) & (bGe))) & (c=4) & (e=2)
ds at least one (at least one = a)
da at least three (at least three b R c) ≡ ((b.c.d R e) & (b.c.d I f))
da at least two (at least two b R c) ≡ ((b.c R d) & (b.c I e))
da exactly one (exactly one b R c) ≡ ((b I c) & (((d I c) & (d R e)) ≡ (d=z)))
da exactly three (exactly three b R c) ≡ (((b W c) ≡ ((c I d) & (c R e))) & ((b W c) → ((c=f) ⊻ (c=g) ⊻ (c=h))))
da exactly two (exactly two b R c) ≡ (((b W c) ≡ ((c I d) & (c R e))) & ((b W c) → ((c=f) ⊻ (c=g))))
a secondᵐ (b=secondᵐ) & (c=firstᵐ) & (((d J b) & (d I e)) ≡ ((f J c) & (f I e) & (d SCM f)))
secondᵐ e.g. This was the second edition of War and Peace. She was a second generation American.
a secondᵒ (b=secondᵒ) & (c=firstᵒ) & (((d J b) & (d I e)) ≡ ((f J c) & (f I e) & (d SUO f)))
secondᵒ e.g. The alarm went off for the second time.
a secondᵖ (b=secondᵖ) & ((c J b) ≡ ((d J e) & (c SCP d ASC f))) & (e=firstᵖ) & (c ⇿ f T g) & (d ⇿ f T h)
secondᵖ e.g. Adams was the second president.
a secondˢ (b=secondˢ) & (c=firstˢ) & (((d J b) & (d I e)) ≡ ((f J c) & (f I e) & (d SCD f)))
secondˢ e.g. Venus is the second planet from the sun.
a secondᵘ (b=secondᵘ) & (c=firstᵘ) & (((d J b) & (d I e)) ≡ ((f J c) & (f I e) & (d SCU f)))
secondᵘ e.g. The second bedroom I mentioned is over there.
ds zero (zero = no)
zero e.g. I have zero dogs iff I have no dogs
.
. Determinatives
.
d a (a b R c) ≡ ((d R c) & (d I b))
aᶠ e.g. In every man who owns aᶠ donkey beats it, aᶠ refers to many donkeys but here 'aᶠ' can replaced with 'anyᶜ' and with some awkwardness the sentence is equivalent to another sentence where 'donkey' is modified by 'every': 'every donkey that is owned by a man is beaten by him.
e.g. In all of the boys wore aʰ shirt, the article refers to many shirts not just one. But 'aʰ' cannot be changed into 'anyᶜ'.
d another (another b R c) ≡ ((d R c) & (d I b))
di anyⁿ (b ~ R anyⁿ c) ≡ (b R no c)
anyⁿ e.g. I dont have anyⁿ cars iff I have no cars.
anyone except ((anyone except b R c) ≡ ((anything except b R c) & (b I d))) & (d=person)
d anything except (anything except b R c) ≡ (((d=~b) → ((b R c) & (d ~ R c))))
db every (every b R c) ≡ ((d I b) → (d R c))
d everything exceptᵖ (everything exceptᵖ b R c) ≡ (((f ~ I b) → (f R d)) & ((e I b) → (e ~ R d)))
d few (few b R c) ≡ (((d W e) ≡ ((e R c) & (e I b))) & ((f W g) ≡ ((g ~ R c) & (g I b))))
few e.g. 'few' is the contradictory of 'many'
d manyᵃ (manyᵃ b R c) ≡ ((d W e) ≡ ((e I b) & (e R c))) all
manyᵃ e.g. More than one and consistent with all. If the Godfather has all the politicians in his pocket then the Godfather has many politicians in his pocket.
a manyᵇ (b=manyᵇ) & ((c J b) → ((c N d) & ((d=e) ⊻ (d G e)))) & (e=2)
manyᵇ e.g. manyᵇ is an adjective and it simply means more than one. 'The moons of Mars are many not none.
de manyᵈ (manyᵈ b R c) ≡ (((h W j) ≡ ((j R c) & (j I b))) & ((f W g) ≡ ((g ~ R c) & (g I b))))
manyᵈ e.g. Manyᵈ b R c iff more b than usual R c. There are manyⁿ cars in the parking lot is false because the majority of cars are not in the partking lot. There areᵉ manyᵈ cars in the parking lot isᵃ true because this means that there are more cars than usual in the parking lot.
de manyⁿ (manyᵈ b R c) ≡ (((h W j) ≡ ((j R c) & (j I b))) & ((f W g) ≡ ((g ~ R c) & (g I b))) & (h N k) & (m N n) & (h G m))
manyⁿ e.g. A consequence of the above definition is: If I shed manyⁿ tears and Barbara Stanwyck shed few tears then I shed more tears than Barbara Stanwyck.
db no (no b R c) ≡ ((d I c) → (d ~ R c))
no d except (no d except bRc) ≡ ((((eId) & (e ~ = b)) → (e~Rc)) & (bRc))
d no one except ((no one except b R c) ≡ ((b R c) & (((e ~ = b) & (e I d)) → (e ~ R c)) & (b I d))) & (d=person)
db only (only b R c) ≡ (((d ~ = b) → (d ~ R c)) & (b R c))
only e.g. In the above the object modified by 'only' must be unique, as in 'only Russell knows the truth'.
db onlyᵍ (onlyᵍ b R c) ≡ (((b R c) → (b I d)) & ((e ~ I b) → (e ~ R c)))
onlyᵍ e.g. in only dogs bark the object modified by only is a concept, not a unique individual
d the ((the b R c) ≡ ((d R c) & (d I b) & (d J e))) & (e=definite)
.
. Determinative Synonyms
.
ds all (all = every)
all of the e.g. All of the boys went home iff all boys went home.
ds all of the (all of the=all)
ds all the (all the=all)
ds an (an = a)
ds anᵃ (anᵃ = aᵃ)
ds any (any = every)
nsd anyone (anyone = every person)
nsd anything (anything = every thing)
nsd anythingⁿ (anythingⁿ = anyⁿ thing)
nsd everyone (everyone = every person)
ns everyone except (everyone except = every person except)
nsd everything (everything = any thing)
nsd everything except (everything except = every thing except)
ds none of the (none of the = no)
nsd nothing (nothing = no thing)
ds nothing except (nothing except = only)
ds nothing exceptᵖ (nothing exceptᵖ = onlyᵖ)
nothingᵈ e.g. Nothingᵈ gigantic isᵃ small iff no giant is small.
d nothingᵈ ((nothingᵈ b R c) ≡ (((e I z) & (e J b)) → (e ~ R c))) & (z=thing)
xs notⁱ a (notⁱ a = noˢ)
xs notⁱ a (notⁱ a = noˢ)
xs notⁱ aᵃ (notⁱ aᵃ = noˢ)
xs notⁱ all (notⁱ all = manyⁿ)
xs notⁱ anything (notⁱ anything = no thing)
xs notⁱ everyone (notⁱ everyone = manyˢ person)
xs notⁱ everything (notⁱ everything = manyˢ thing)
ds notⁱ manyᵈ (notⁱ manyᵈ = exactly one)
xs notⁱ manyᵐ (notⁱ manyᵐ = few)
xs notⁱ manyⁿ (notⁱ manyⁿ = every)
notⁱ manyⁿ e.g. Notⁱ justʳ manyⁿ men are mortal, all men areᵃ mortal
ds one (one=some)
ds one of (one of=some)
ds some (some=a)
ds some of the (some of the = manyᵈ)
ds someᵐ (someᵐ = manyᵈ)
nsd someone (someone = some person)
ds someᵖ (someᵖ = manyᵈ)
someᵖ e.g. Someᵖ UK prime ministers are male.
nsd something (something = a thing)
ds thatᵈ (thatᵈ=the)
ds theᵃ (theᵃ=a)
theᵃ e.g. Logic nourishes theᵃ soul iff logic nourishes some souls.
ds this (this=the)
.
. Pronouns
.
p he ((he Rb) ≡ ((cRb) & (cId) & (cJe))) & (c=he) & (d=person) & (e=male)
p her (her=she)
herᵖ ((herᵖ bRc) ≡ ((dRc) & (dIb) & (eOWNd) & (eIg) & (eJf))) & (f=female) & (g=person) & (g=she)
ps him (him=he)
dc his ((his bRc) ≡ ((dRc) & (dIb) & (eOWNd) & (eIg) & (eJf))) & (f=male) & (g=person) & (e=he)
p i ((i Rb) → (iId)) & (d=person)
it e.g. It is false that some pigs fly.
pi it
itᵖ e.g. I saw it.
p itᵖ ((b R itᵖ) ≡ ((bRc) & (cJd))) & (d=sexless)
de itsᵃ ((b R itsᵃ c) ≡ ((b R d) & (d I c) & (b HM d) & (b J f))) & (f=sexless)
itʷ hard coded
itʷ e.g. itʷ is raining
ps me (me=i)
dc my ((my bRc) ≡ ((dRc) & (dIb) & (iOWNd)))
myᵃ ((myᵃ bRc) ≡ ((dRc) & (dIb) & (iWd)))
our
p she ((she Rb) ≡ ((cRb) & (cId) & (cJe))) & (c=she) & (d=person) & (e=female)
their
ps them (them=they)
p they (d=person) & ((they Rb) → ((cRb) & (cId) & (zIc) & (cJg))) & (g=definite)
p we ((we R b) ≡ ((gWc) → ((cRb) & (cId)))) & ((iSPKe) → (gWi)) & (e⇿we R b) & (d=person)
p you ((you Rb) → ((cRb) & (cId))) & (c=you) & (d=person)
dc your ((your bRc) ≡ ((dRc) & (dIb) & (eIf) & (eOWNd))) & (e=you) & (f=person)
yourᵃ ((yourᵃ bRc) ≡ ((dRc) & (dIb) & (you Wd)))
yourᵖ
.
. Relations, Nouns, Adverbs and Adjectives
.
ra about ABT
about ABT e.g. The movie was about the alienation of modern life
r aboveᵃ ABO (aboveᵃ =ABO) & ((b ABO c) ≡ ((b S d) & (d AB c)))
r aboveᵐ ABV (aboveᵐ =ABV) & ((b ABV c) ≡ ((b S d) & (c S e) & (d AB e)))
r absorb ABP (b ABP c) ≡ ((c W d) ≡ (b ABS d)) p=person person group
r absorbᵈ ABD (b ABD c DRI d) ≡ ((c W e) ≡ ((b ABG e T f) & (f DR d))) d=duration person group
r absorbᶠ ABF ((b ABF c) ≡ ((b S d T e.f) & (b H g T e.f) & (g.h I j) & (g N k) & (c ~ S d T e) & (c S d T f) & (f SUT e) & (m SUT f) & ((n I o) → (c ~ S n T m)) & (b S p T m) & (b H h T m) & (h N o) & (o G k))) & (j=energy) & (o=point) f=fermion particle particle
r absorbᵍ ABG ((b ABG c) ≡ ((b GOV d) & (d ABF c))) g=group person particle
a abstract (b=abstract) & ((c J b) ≡ ((c A d) ⊻ (c S e) ⊻ (c G f) ⊻ (g H c) ⊻ (c W h) ⊻ (j I c) ⊻ (k J c) ⊻ (c I m))) & (m=relation)
r abstract from ABS (b ABS c d) ≡ (((d WB e) ≡ (e I f)) & (b B g) & (g ⇿ h IFF j) & (h ⇿ e I f) & (j ⇿ e H c))
a abstractᵗ (b=abstractᵗ) & ((c J b) ≡ (d I c)) term
a absurd (b=absurd) & ((c J b) ≡ ((c ~ J d) & (¬c ~ J d))) & (d=consistent)
absurd e.g. It is absurd that 'the present king of France is bald'.
as absurdʳ (absurdʳ = ridiculous)
ns action (action = effect)
a activeᵉ (b=activeᵉ) & (((c H d) & (d J b)) ≡ ((c INM e) & (f CS g) & (g W c))) extrinsic
a activeᵖ (b=activeᵖ) & (((c H d) & (d J b)) ≡ (b CS d)) property
rs actualize ACU (actualize = materialize)
e actually (b=actually) & ((c V b) ≡ (b E c)) & (d=real world)
r afterᵖ AFP ((b AFP c) ≡ ((b W d) & (d J e) & (d A c))) & (e=first) period moment
a agnostic about (b=agnostic about) & ((c J b d) ≡ ((c ~ B d) & (c ~ B ¬d)))
r allow ALO ((b ALO c d INM e T f) ≡ (((c TRY d INM e T g) & (f A g)) → (b ~ TRY h INM e T f))) & (h ⇿ b PRV d c)
e always (b=always) & ((c V b) ≡ ((d I e) → (c T d))) & (e=moment)
e alwaysᵖ (b=alwaysᵖ) & ((c V b) ≡ ((d I e) → (c P d))) & (e=possible world)
rs appear (appear=SM)
a arbitraryᵍ (b=arbitraryᵍ) & ((c J b) ≡ ((c W d) ≡ ((e B f) & ((e=h) ⊻ (e~=d))))) & (f ⇿ c W d) group
ns area (area=region)
a arranged (b=arranged) & ((c J b) ≡ ((c W d) &
arranged ((d W e) ≡ ((e INM f) → ((g J h) ⊻ (g J j)))) &
arranged ((d W k.m) → ((k m H n) & (n I o))) & (g ⇿ e I p))) &
arranged (g ⇿ e I p) & (j=likely) & (o=spatial relation) & (h=true)
arranged e.g. c is arranged iff c has a set d
arranged each member of d is an area where it is likely that a material object of a certain type exists within it
arranged and each member of d has a spatial orientation to each other member
arranged note that this arrangement only applies to objects whose members are material objects and which are rough arrangements, that is to say, it is not exactly true that in each area of c there is only one type of material object
a artificial (b=artificial) & ((c J b) ≡ ((c J d) & (e I f) & (e CA g INT h))) & (d=natural) & (f=person) & (g ⇿ c J d) & (h=past)
rdiaa as AS (as =AS) & (((b AS c) & (d R b)) ≡ (c R b))
as e.g. Plato has the same teacher as Xenothon iff Plato has teacher b and Xenothon has teacher b.
ask (how) ((bASKc) ≡ ((gIf) → (bBk))) & (c ⇿ how CAe) & (f=cause) & (h ⇿ gCAe) & (k ⇿ hUj)
ask (how) e.g. Leibniz asks how do we measure the universe iff if g is a cause then Leibniz thinks it is possible that g causes us to measure the universe
ask (what) ((hASKg) ≡ ((cId) → (hBk))) & (d=thing) & (e ⇿ bRc) & (g ⇿ bR what?) & (k ⇿ eUf)
ask (what) e.g. Jim asks what is he going to do? iff if c is a thing, then Jim thinks that it is possible that he does c.
ask (what) e.g. Jim asks what will the bail be iff if c is a thing then Jim thinks that it is possible that the bail will be c.
ratab atᶜ ATC
atᶜ e.g. Russell was atᶜ the party
atⁱ e.g. I'm atⁱ Kiera's house iff Im inᵖ Kieras house.
rs atⁱ (atⁱ=INP)
atⁿ e.g. I'm at the bank could mean that I'm just outside the bank or that I'm inᵖ the bank.
rs atⁿ (atⁿ=NXT)
atomic equivalent (b=indefinable equivalent) & (((cIb) & (cOFd)) ≡ ((c ≡ d) & (d~Jf) & ((eIc) → (eJf)))) & (f=indefinable)
a atomicᵖ (b=indefinableᵖ) & (c=property) & (d=relationship) & (e ⇿ f H g) & (((g I c) & (g J b)) ≡ ((h I d) → (h NF e)))
a atomicʳ (b=indefinableʳ) & (c=relationship) & (d=relation) & (e ⇿ f R g) & (((RJ b) & (RI c)) ≡ ((h I c) → (h NF e)))
rs attempt (attempt=TRY)
rs attended (attended = participated)
as authentic (authentic=actual)
na authority
n axiom (b=axiom) & ((c I b) ≡ ((d I e) → (d NF c))) & (e=relationship)
axiom e.g. an axiom is not entailed by another sentence
aa basicʳ (c=basicʳ) & ((p I c) ≡ ((p W d.e.f) & (d.e I g) & (f I h))) & (g=abbreviation) & (h=relation) relationship
r before BF (before =BF) & ((b BF c) ≡ (c A b)) moment moment
r behind BH (behind =BH) & ((b BH c) ≡ (c F b)) point point
r behindʷ BEH (behindʷ=BEH) & ((b BEH j) ≡ ((b W g) & (g S c) & (j F c))) group particle
n belief (b=belief) & ((c I b) ≡ (d B c))
rs believes (believes = B)
r believesᵗ BT (believes tentatively=BT) & ((b BT m T n) ≡ ((b B o) & (b B m) & (p A n) & (q ⇿ b ~ B m T p) & (o ⇿ q P r)))
believesᵗ e.g. we believe something tentatively iff we believe that there is a probability that we will not believe it in the future
rs believeᵗ (believeᵗ=BT)
r belongᵒ BLG (belongᵒ =BLG) & ((b BLG c) ≡ (c OWN b))
r belongs toⁱ BIM (b BIM c) ≡ (c HIM b)
belongs toⁱ e.g. The belief 'there are dogs' belongs toⁱ my imagination
r below BEL (below ᵃ=BEL) & ((b BEL c) ≡ ((b S d) & (c AB d)))
r below BW (below =BW) & ((b BW c) ≡ (c AB b))
r belowᵐ BLW (belowᵐ =BLW) & ((b BLW c) ≡ ((b S d) & (b S e) & (e AB d)))
ra betweenᵃ BTA (b BTA c d) ≡ ((e I f) → ~((c R e) & (e R d))) & ((g=h) ⊻ (g=j) ⊻ (g=k)) & (f=thing) & (g=R) & (h=L) & (j=F) & (k=AB) point point
r betweenᵖ BTP (betweenᵖ =BTP) & ((b BTP c d) ≡ ((b N e) & (c N f) & (d N g) & (((g G e) & (e G f)) ⊻ ((f G e) & (e G g))))) set set
r betweenᵖ BTW (b BTW c d) ≡ (((b G c) & (d G b)) ⊻ ((d G b) & (c G b))) number number
rs betweenᵗ (betweenᵗ=CBT)
a biconditionalʳ (b=biconditional) & (((c HA d e) & (d J b) & (d I f)) ≡ (c IFF e)) & (f=relationᵖ)
biconditionalʳ e.g. x is France has a biconditional relation with x is the country that borders Spain and Germany
na bodyᶜ (b=bodyᶜ) & ((c I b) ≡ (((c W d) → (d I e)) & (c W f) & (f I e))) & (e=particle)
n bodyᵐ (b=bodyᵐ) & ((c I b) ≡ ((c W d) → (d I e))) & (e=particleᵐ)
n boson (b=boson) & ((c I b) ≡ (d J e)) &
boson ((c I b) ≡ ((f I g) → (c ~ ABF f))) &
boson (g=particle) & (d ⇿ h ABF c) & (e=consistent)
n boundary (b=boundary) & (((c I b) & (d H c)) ≡ (d IN c))
rs break (break=VIO)
ra breaks BRK
n broad reality (b=broad reality) & ((b W c) ≡ ((c J d T e) & (f A e))) & (e=now) & (d=real)
ra calculate CLC
ra calculates CLC
na can hit
ea canᵃ
canᵃ e.g. Bob canᵃ speak Dutch.
e cannotʷ
cannotʷ e.g. It cannot be the case that we've lost iff I hope that we haven't lost.
r cares about (c more than d) CR ((b CR c d) ≡ ((b DM e f) & (c.d I g) & (e ⇿ c J h) & (f ⇿ d J h))) & (j=happy) & (g=person) person person
as case (case = true)
ns causal part (causal part = partᶜ)
na causal role
a causalᵖ (b=causalᵖ) & (((c H d) & (d J b)) ≡ property
a causalᵖ ((d W e) ≡ property
a causalᵖ (((c INM f E g T h) & (j SUT h) & (k I j)) → property
a causalᵖ ((e I m) & (e OF n o) & property
a causalᵖ ((n W p) ≡ ((q P p T j) & (p I o) & (g H p))) & property
a causalᵖ ((o W r) ≡ ((q ~ P r T j) & (r I o) & (g H o))))))) & property
a causalᵖ (j=region) & (s=possible world) & (o=offspring) & (q ⇿ c INM k) property
ra cause CA ((b E c U d T e CA f E g T h) ≡
cause ((b.f J j) & (b E c U d T e) & (f E g U d T h) & (h SUT e) &
cause ((k W m) ≡ ((m P n U o) & (m ~=b))) &
cause ((p W q) ≡ ((q I r) & (n H q))) &
cause ((s W t) ≡ ((p W t) & (f ~ P t))) &
cause (((u E c) & ((v W w) ≡ ((w P x U y) & (w E c) & (w ~= u))) & ((z W b::1) ≡ ((a::1 I r) & (x H a::1) & (f ~ P a::1)))) → (s GR z)) &
cause (((c::1 W d::1) ≡ ((d::1 I r) & (c H d::1))) → (f P d::1)))) &
cause (r=offspring) & (j=naturalʳ)
cause e.g. b in the actual world c in universe d at time e causes f in actual world h at time h iff
cause b and f are natural relationships, that is to say, their subjects are located in space, b exists in the actual world c in universe d at time e
cause f exists in the actual world g in universe d at time h and h succeeds e
cause world n in universe o contains the set k of all those relationships which world c has except b
cause p is the set of all those worlds which are the offspring of n
cause s is the set of all worlds in which f is false
cause z is the set of all world which are the offspring of a world in which b is true and some other relationship u is false in that world but true in c
r causeᵃ CAS (b CAS c) ≡ ((d CS c) & (d ⇿ b MOV e f)) person relationship
causeᵃ e.g. Russell causedᵃ c iff Russell caused something to move
r causeᵇ CS ((b CS c) ≡ (b INM d E e T f CA c INM d E g T h)) relationship relationship
r causeᶠ CAF ((b CAF c) ≡ ((b CA d) & (b D e))) & (e ⇿ (f EXP d) → ((d B c) & ((d J g) ∨ (d J h)))) & (c ⇿ (j M k) & (b W k)) & (g=entertained) & (h=enlightened) fiction
causeᶠ e.g. Shakespeare causedᶠ the play 'Hamlet' to exist
a certain (b=certain) & (((c J b) & (c TO d T e)) ≡ ((d B f T e) & (g A e) & (d B h))) & (j=reality) & (e=now) & (k=possible world) & (h ⇿ (m I k) → (n ~ P m)) & (f ⇿ c E j) & (n ⇿ d ~ B f T g)
certain e.g. c is certain to d iff believes that d will always believe c
rxd chronologically between CBT (chronologically between =CBT) & ((b CBT c d) ≡ (((b A c) & (d A b)) ⊻ ((b A d) & (c A b))))
chronologically between e.g. 1912 is chronologically between 1910 and 1914 iff 1912 is after 1910 and 1914 is after 1912.
n common name (b=common name) & ((c I b) ≡ ((c I d) & (c RF e) & (e I f))) & (d=word) & (f=conceptⁿ)
rs composed of (composed of = W)
n concept (b=concept) & ((c I b) ≡ ((d I c) ⊻ (d H c) ⊻ (d J c) ⊻ (d N c)))
na concept phrase (c=concept-phrase) & ((bIc) ≡ ((dIb) & (eRFb) & ((eWf) → (fIj)) & (eNg) & (gGh))) & (h=1) & (g=word)
concept phrase e.g. Walking home is a concept-phrase.
n conceptᵇ (b=conceptᵇ) & ((c I b) ≡ (d H c)) & ((c I b) → (c I e)) & (e=non-whole)
conceptᵖ e.g. The United States never did ratify the Treaty of Versailles nor join the League of Nations, which had initially been Wilson's conceptᵖ.
ns conceptᵖ (conceptᵖ=plan)
ns conclusion (conclusion=inference)
concrete e.g. The North Pole is a concrete point iff the North Pole is a particular point.
as concrete (concrete=particular)
a conditionalʳ (b=conditional) & ((c HA b d) ≡ (c IF d)) & ((b=conditional) → (b I e)) & (e=relationᵖ)
conditionalʳ e.g. x is a cat has a conditional relation with x is a mammal
conditionˢ e.g. If the following condition is actual, i.e., there is a fire, run for the fire exit.
ns conditionˢ (conditionˢ=situation)
connectedⁱ (b=connectedⁱ) & ((c J b) ≡ ((d I e) & (d OF c) & (f I g) & (c HV f) & (h HV c) & ((j I d) ⊻ (j=g)) & (j J k))) & (g=main relation) & (e=indefinable equivalent) & (k=connectedˢ)
aa connectedˢ (b=connectedˢ) & ((c f J b T h) ≡ (((c → f) ⊻ (c ⊻ f) ⊻ (c ≡ f) ⊻ (c ∨ f)) & (c ~ E j T h) & (f ~ E j T h))) & (j=reality)
connectedˢ e.g. 'Living in San Diego' is connected to 'living in California'.
ns consequence (consequence=inference)
a consistentⁿ (b=consistentⁿ) & ((c J b) ≡ ((d I e) & (d OF c) & (d J f))) & (f=consistent) & (e=definiens)
consistentⁿ e.g. the prime number divisible by 2 and greater than 3 is not a consistent number
r contain CT (contain =CT) & ((b CT c) ≡ (c IN b))
e contingently (b=contingently) & ((c V b) ≡ (c J d)) & (d=contingent)
r continguous CTG ((b CTG c) ≡ (((b W d) ≡ ((d IN b) & (c ~ W d))) & ((c W e) ≡ ((e IN c) & (b ~ W e))) & (b W f) & (c W g) & ((h I j) → (h ~ BTA f g)))) & (j=thing)
a contradictoryᵖ (b=contradictoryᵖ) & ((c d J b) ≡ ((c J e Q g) & (d J e Q h) & (c d ~ J e Q j))) & (e=consistentᵖ)
contradictoryᵖ e.g. 'JFK died in his sleep' is consistent in domain g and 'JFK was assassinated' is consistent in domain h but 'JFK died in his sleep' and 'JFK was assassinated' are not consistent in the same domain.
a contrapositiveʳ (b=contrapositive) & ((c HA b d) ≡ (~ c IMP ~ d)) & ((b=contrapositive) → (b I e)) & (e=relationᵖ)
contrapositiveʳ e.g. x is not a mammal has a contrapositive relation with x is not a cat
as contrasting (contrasting=different)
r correspond CRR ((k CRR b) ≡ ((k M c) & (k P e) & (e J f))) & (b=reality) & (f=real)
r correspondᵃ CRA (b CRA c) ≡ (((b EM d T e) & (f AD c T g) & (b S h T e)) → ((c O j T g) & (g SUT e))) particle particle_
r correspondᵇ CRB (b CRB c) ≡ (((d EM e T f) & (g AD e T h) & (d S b T f)) → ((j O c T f) & (h SUT f))) point point_
r correspondᶜ CRC (b CRC c) ≡ (((b W d) ≡ (d INM e)) & ((c W f) ≡ (f INH g)) & ((b W h) → ((h CRA j) & (c W j))) & ((c W k) → ((m CRA k) & (b W m)))) body_ body_
r correspondᵍ CRG ((b CRG c) ≡ ((b W d) ≡ ((d S e) & (d H f) & ((d ~ J g) → (c ~ J g))))) & (f=energy) & (g=extant) g=group
correspondᵍ e.g. the CRG relation relates a set of particles to a relationship, meaning if the particles do not exist then the relationship does not exist.
r count CNT (b CNT c) ≡ ((b B d.g) & (d ⇿ c W e) & (g ⇿ c N f)) person whole
r countⁿ COT (b COT c) ≡ (c N b) number whole
countⁿ e.g. numbers count sets
n courage (b=courage) & ((c H b) ≡ (c J d)) & (d=courageous)
na courageous
na dead
ns deduction (deduction=inference)
deduction e.g. 'Socrates is mortal' is a deduction from 'Socrates is a man and Socrates is mortal'.
e deductively (justify) (b=deductively) & (c ⇿ d JU e) & ((c V b) → ((f J g) & (h J j)))
aa definite (c=definite) & (((b J c) & (d J c) & ((b I e) ≡ (d I e))) → (b~=d))
e definiteᵈ (description) (b=definiteᵈ) & (c ⇿ d J e) & ((c V b) ≡ ((f I g) → (f ~ J e))) & (g=thing)
as definiteᵛ (definiteᵛ = certain)
definiteᵛ e.g. It is definiteᵛ to me that this color is red.
n degree (b=degree) & ((c I b) ≡
degree (((d W c) → (c I e)) &
degree (((d W f) & (f ~ J g)) → ((d W h) & (h G f))) &
degree (d W j) & (j J g))) &
degree (e=number) & (g=lastⁿ)
r depend DP ((b INM c P d T e DP f INM c P g T h) ≡ ((b P d T e) & (f P g T h) & (((j I k) & (f ~ P m T h) & (m J c) & (e SUT h)) → ((b ~ P j T e) & (j J c))))) & (k=possible world) & (c=real)
as description (description=property)
r desireʲ (c just as much as d) DJ ((b DJ c d E e) ≡ just as much as
desireʲ (c just as much as d) (((f W g) ≡ (((h I j) & (k H h) & (g P h)) → (c.d ~ P h))) &
desireʲ (c just as much as d) (k H e) & (e I j) &
desireʲ (c just as much as d) ((m W n) ≡ ((n I j) & (e H n) & (o.¬g.¬p P n))) &
desireʲ (c just as much as d) ((q W r) ≡ ((r I j) & (e H r) & (p.¬g.¬c P r))) &
desireʲ (c just as much as d) (m EQ q))) &
desireʲ (c just as much as d) (o ⇿ b CS s) & (t ⇿ s CS c) & (p ⇿ b CS e) & (u ⇿ e CS d) & (j=offspring)
r desireᵐ (c more than d) DM ((b DM c d E e) ≡ more
desireᵐ (c more than d) (((f W g) ≡ (((h I j) & (e H h) & (g P h)) → (c.d ~ P h))) &
desireᵐ (c more than d) (k H e) & (e I j) &
desireᵐ (c more than d) ((m W n) ≡ ((n I j) & (e H n) & (o.¬g.¬p P n))) &
desireᵐ (c more than d) ((q W r) ≡ ((r I j) & (e H r) & (p.¬g.¬o P r))) &
desireᵐ (c more than d) (m GR q) & (b B s.t) & (c.d ~ E e))) &
desireᵐ (c more than d) (o ⇿ b CS u) & (s ⇿ u CS c) & (p ⇿ b CS e) & (t ⇿ e CS d) & (j=offspring)
desireᵐ (c more than d) e.g. b desires c more than d at actual world f iff
desireᵐ (c more than d) n is the set of all those relationships u where it exists in no possible world that is an offspring of the actual world and that u is true c and d are false
desireᵐ (c more than d) f is the offspring of actual world t
desireᵐ (c more than d) p is the set of all those possible worlds in which u is not true but b causes e which causes c and b does not cause j which causes d
desireᵐ (c more than d) r is the set of all those possible worlds in which u is not true but b causes j which causes d and b does not cause e which causes c
desireᵐ (c more than d) set p is greater than set r
desireᵐ (c more than d) In simpler terms, world f is actual at time 1 and n is the set of those relationships which prevent c and d from being actual. At time 2, the relationships in n are false which paves the way for either c or d to be actual. Set p consists of all those worlds which are the offspring of world f where b decided to cause e which in turn caused c. Set r consists of all those worlds which are the offspring of world f where b decided to cause f which in turn caused d. Set p has more members than set r.
desireᵐ (c more than d) In simpler terms, world f is actual at time 1, set n is composed of all those worlds o where there is no relationship which prevents either c or d from being actual and every world belonging to set n is an offspring of the actual world. We need this last condition because you can only desire something within a context and that context is none other than the set of relationships which compose the actual world.
r desireⁿ DN (b DN c) ≡ (b DM c ¬c) new
axd different (b=different) & ((c d J b) ≡ (c=~d))
r different from DF (different from =DF) & ((b DF c) ≡ (b~=c))
rz distinct from (distinct from = DF)
a divine (b=divine) & (c=God) & ((d J b) ≡ (d=c))
a divineˢ (b=divineˢ) & (c=God) & ((d J b) ≡ (d SML c))
ns duration (duration=period)
r during DUR (during =DUR) & ((b DUR c) ≡ ((d T b) & (b DR c))) non-moment period
r duringᵉ DRI (duringᵉ =DRI) & ((b DRI c) ≡ ((b W d) ≡ ((d T e) & (e DR c)))) whole period
r duringᵒ DRG (duringᵒ =DRG) & ((b DRG c) ≡ ((b W d) ≡ ((d DR b) & (d DR c)))) period period
r duringᵗ DR (duringᵗ =DR) & ((b DR c) ≡ ((b A d) & (e A b) & ((c W f) ≡ ((f A d) & (e A f))))) moment period
r earlier than EL (earlier than =EL) & ((b EL c) ≡ (c A b)) moment moment
r earlierᵖ than ELA (b ELA c) ≡ (((b W d) & (c W e)) → (e A d)) period period
r emit EMI ((b EMI c) ≡ ((b S d T e.f) & (b H g T e.f) & (g.h I j) & (g N k) & (c S d T f) & (c ~ S d T m) & (f SUT e) & (m SUT f) & ((n I o) → (c ~ S n T e)) & (b S p T m) & (b H h T m) & (h N o) & (k G o))) & (j=energy) & (o=point) particle particle
a empirical (of a relation) (b=empirical) & (((c=SEE) ⊻ (c=HR) ⊻ (c=TOC) ⊻ (c=TST) ⊻ (c=SML)) → (c J b))
empirical (of a relation) e.g. 'see', 'hear', 'touch', 'taste' and 'smell' are empirical relations.
ns empty space (empty space=void)
r entailsⁿ EN ((b EN c) ≡ ((b W d) & (d J e) & ((b W f) → (f J g)) & (b c J h) & (b ¬c ~ J h))) & (g=true) & (h=consistent) & (e=necessary) necessary relationshio necessary relationship
entailsⁿ e.g. a set of premises b entails c iff all of the sentences in b are true and at least one of the sentences in b is necessary and b and c are consistent and b and not c are contradictory. (this is for entailment where the premises cannot be denied)
a entire past ((b=entire past) ≡ ((b W c) → (d A c))) & (d=now)
ns entity (entity=thing)
ns entityⁿ (entityⁿ=objectⁿ)
r equalsᵍ EQ ((b EQ c) ≡ ((b.c I d) & (b.e N f))) & (d=whole) group whole whole
r equivalent EQ (b EQ c) ≡ (b ≡ c)
n essential unit (b=essential unit) & (c ⇿ d HG e) & ((c V f) ≡ (((g W h) ≡ ((h I b) & (e H h))) & (g N j))) & (f=essentially) & (j=100)
e essentially (b=essentially) & (c ⇿ d HG e) & (f ⇿ g RF d) & ((f.c V b) ≡ (
essentially (((h W j) & (k HG j)) → ((k=d) & (g RF k))) &
essentially ((g RF m) → ((m HG n) & (h W n) & (d=m))) &
essentially (g RF d) & (h W e) & (d HG e) &
essentially ((h W o.p) → ((d HG o) ⊻ (d HG p))) &
essentially (((h W q) & (q W r)) → (r J s)))) &
essentially (s=intrinsic)
essentially e.g. d has e and g refers to d essentially iff
essentially (a) h is a set of subsets and each subset j which is a member of h is such that if k has j then k is identical to d and g refers to k
essentially (b) if g refers to m then m has a set of properties n and n belongs to h and m is identical to d
essentially (c) g refers to d and h has set e and d has set e
essentially (d) it is not the case that d has two sets which belong to h
essentially (e) each member of each subset which belongs to h is an intrinsic property.
essentially In simpler terms, an essence is a set composed of subsets of intrinsic properties whereby if something has each member of one of the subsets then it is referred to by a certain name.
n event (b=event) & ((c I b) ≡ (c OC))
n everythingⁿ ((b=everythingⁿ) ≡ ((c I d) → (b W c))) & (d=thing)
e exactlyᵃ (arranged) (b=arranged) & (c=exactlyᵃ) & (d ⇿ e J b) & ((d V c) → (f J g)) & (g=true)
rs exist as (exist as = I)
exist as e.g. Lincoln exists as a president iff Lincoln isᵍ aʳ president
n existenceᵃ (b=existenceᵃ) & (((c I d) & (c OF b)) ≡ (c I e)) & (e=thing) & (d=instance)
existenceᵃ e.g. Audrey Hepburn is an instance of existenceᵃ
r exists EX (exists =EX) & ((b EX) ≡ (b J c)) & (c=extant)
r experience EXP (b EXP c T d) ≡ ((b ADS e T f) → ((b B c T d) & (c E g) & (d SUT f))) & (c ⇿ e R h)
r experience EXP (b EXP j) ≡ ((b ABP c) & (c CRA j))
n explicitᵉ relationshipᵉ (b=explicitᵉ relationshipᵉ) & ((c I b) ≡ ((c W d) & (c W e) & (c W f) & (d I g) & (e I h) & (f I g))) & (g=relatum) & (h=relation)
a extrinsic (b=extrinsic) & (((c H d) & (d J b)) ≡ ((d J e) ⊻ (d J f) ⊻ (d J g))) & (e=activeᵉ) & (f=mentalᵉ) & (g=locationalᵉ)
na fact (c=fact) & ((p I c) ≡ ((p I d) & (p J e))) & (e=realᵖ) & (d=relationship)
a false* (b=false) & ((c J b Q d) ≡ ((c J e) & (c ~ Q d) & (c Q f) & (c I g))) & (e=extant) & (g=relationship)
n familial part (b=familial part) & (((c I b) & (c OF d)) ≡ (c I d))
familial part e.g. This tiger is part of the species 'tiger'.
n familial partᵃ (b=familial partᵃ) & ((c I b) ≡ (d HM c))
ns familial whole (familial whole=group)
a familiar (b=familiar) & ((c J b TO d T e) ≡ (((e A f) & (d EXP c DR f) & (d B g)) → ((h J j) & (k m A f)))) & (m=much) & (g ⇿ n RF c) & (h ⇿ d B g T k) & (j=frequent)
familiar e.g. p is familiar to b iff p is an instance of d and whenever b experiences an instance of d then they [frequently] believe much later that they experienced an instance of d. Note, we did not put 'frequently' in our definition
na family
ra feel
ra feels
n fermion (b=fermion) & ((c I b) ≡ (d J e)) &
fermion ((c I b) ≡ ((f I g) → (f ~ ABF c))) &
fermion (g=particle) & (d ⇿ c ABF h) & (e=consistent)
a fictional (b=fictional) & ((c J b TO d) → ((d B e.g) & (c ~ E d) & (c M f))) & (e ⇿ c ~ E d) & (g ⇿ c M f)
a first orderᵘ (b=first orderᵘ) & ((c J b) ≡ ((d I e) & (d OF c) & (d I f))) & (f=particular) & (e=instanceᵘ)
n firstᵐ (b=first) & ((c J b) ≡ ((d I e) → (d A c))) & (e=moment) moment moment
as forbidden (forbidden=morally impossible)
as forbiddenˡ (forbiddenˡ=legally impossible)
as frequent (frequent = probable)
rs fromᵇ (fromᵇ = bornᵖ)
rs fromᶜ FRMC (FRMC = FLC)
fromᶜ e.g. 'being a mortal' isᵍ an inferenceᶜ fromᶜ 'being human'
r frontᵃ FRA (inʳ frontᵃ ofʳ=FRA) & ((b FRA c) ≡ (((b W d) & (d S e)) → (e F c))) & (c I f) & (e I f) & (f=point) & (g=particle) & (h=natural whole) & (b I h) & (d I g)
r frontᵐ FRN (inʳ frontᵐ ofʳ=FRN) & ((b FRN c) ≡ ((b S d) & (c S e) & (d F e)))
r frontᵒ FRO (inʳ frontᵒ ofʳ=FRO) & ((k FRO m) ≡ (((m W n) & (n S o)) → (k F o))) & (e=natural whole) & (p=point) & (q=particle) & (k I p) & (m I e) & (n I q)
r frontʷ FNT (inʳ frontʷ ofʳ=FNT) & ((b FNT c) ≡ (((b W d) & (d S e) & (c W f) & (f S g)) → (e F g)))
ns general term (general term = conceptⁿ)
as generalᵗ (generalᵗ = abstractᵗ) term
as genuine (genuine=actual)
ra go GO
ra go to GO
n goal (b=goal) & (((c I b) & (c FOR d)) ≡ (d D c))
n god (b=god) ≡ (((b ~ EX) & (c=~b)) → (c ~ EX))
god e.g. In this system everything exists, so there is no reason to put (b EX) in the definition of 'god'.
ra goes GO (GO=MOV)
aa good
r govern GOV ((b GOV c) ≡ (((b D d T e) & (f SUT e) & (d J g)) → (d E h))) & (g=lawful) & (d ⇿ c S j T f) mind fermion
rs greater than (greater than = afterⁿ)
r greaterᵍ than GR ((b GR c) ≡ ((b.c I d) & (b N e) & (c N f) & (e G f))) & (d=whole) group whole whole
r greatest GRA ((b GRA c d) ≡ ((e R f g) → ((g=b) ⊻ (b G g)))) & (d=R) & (c=degree)
ns haecceity (haecceity=unique essence)
rs happen (happen=OC)
r hasᵃᵍ WA ((b WA c) ≡ ((b W c) ≡ (d E f))) & (d ⇿ g B h) & (h ⇿ b W c)
hasᵃᵍ e.g. b has c iff someone believes that b has c. In other words, the members of b are completely arbitrary.
r hasᵃᵐ HAM ((b HAM c U d T e) ≡ (((c W f) ≡ ((g P f U d T e) & (f J h) & (e SUT j))) & (k E b T j))) & (h=real) possible world whole
r hasᵃᵒ HAO ((b HAO c U d T e) ≡ (((f W g) ≡ ((h P g U d T e) & (g J j) & (e SUT k))) & (f W c) & (m E b T k))) & (j=real) possible world possible world
ra hasᶜ HC
r hasᶜᵖ HCP (b HCP c) ≡ ((b W c) ≡ (b CSE d))
hasᶜᵖ e.g. The causes of this war hasᶜᵖ parts and one of them was the embargo.
r hasᶜʳ (causal role) HCA ((b HCA c) ≡ (b CA c)) & ((b HCA c) → (b H c))
hasᶜʳ (causal role) e.g. Bullets have the causal role 'killing'
r hasᵐ HM (g HM h) ≡ (h I g) concept instance
hasᵐ HM e.g. The concept 'planet' hasᵐ 'the Earth' as an instance.
r hasⁿ HN (hasⁿ =HN) & ((b HN c) ≡ ((b IN d) & (b IN e) & (e INU d)))
r hasᵖᵉ HCE (b HCE c) ≡ ((b HCB c) ⊻ (b HCD c))
r hasᵖʲ HCD (hasᵖʲ =HCD) & ((b HCD c) ≡ ((b TKW d) & (d CRR e) & (e P f) & (T g)) → ((e T h) & (h A g))) & (e ⇿ b R j INS k) person
r hasᵖᵏ (causal power) HCB (hasᵖᵏ =HCB) & ((b HCB c) ≡ ((b R d INM e T f) → ((g R h INM e T g) & (g SUT f))))
r hasˢᵖ HSP (b HSP c) ≡ (c IN b) region region
hasˢᵖ e.g. This circle hasˢᵖ this smaller circle, since the latter is in the former
r hasᵗ HAT (bcdef=HAT) & ((g HAT h) ≡ (h TCH g)) teacher
hasᵗ e.g. Plato hasᵗ a teacher
r hasʷᵇ WB (b WB c) ≡ (c I d)
hasʷᵇ e.g. group b hasʷᵇ c iff c isᵍ a dog.
r hasʷⁱ WI (b WI c) ≡ ((c I b) ⊻ (b W c))
have (a body) (((b H c) & (c I d)) ≡ (b W c)) & (d=body)
have (a name) (((b H c) & (c I d)) ≡ (d RF b)) & (d=name)
have (an experience) (((b H c) & (c I d)) ≡ (b EXP c)) & (d=experience)
have (relatum) H (((b I c) & (d.e I f) & (b H d.e)) ≡ ((d R e) ⊻ (e R d))) & (c=relation) & (f=relatum) relation relatum
have (relatum) H (((b H c) & (b I d) & (c I e)) ≡ (b ≡ c)) & (d=definiendum) & (c=definiens) definiendum definiens
rxd haveᶜ (in common) HCM (b c HCM d) ≡ ((b H d) & (c H d))
r haveᵍ HG (b HG c) ≡ ((c W d) → (b H d))
haveᵍ e.g. Leibniz has a group iff Leibniz has each member of that group
r haveᵍᶜ HGC (b HGC c) ≡ ((b W d) → (d I c)) group thing
rs haveᵒ (haveᵒ=own)
r haveᵗ HAT (haveᵗ =HAT) & ((b HAT c) ≡ (c TCH b))
haveᵗ e.g. Aristotle hasᵗ a teacher.
a historical (b=historical) & ((c J b) ≡ ((c T d) & (e A d) & (c ~ T e))) & (e=now)
ls identical (identical = =)
identification e.g. The 16th president is an identification of Lincoln iff the 16th president is a definite description of Lincoln.
ns identification (identification=definite description)
r identify IDT (b IDT c d) ≡ ((b KN e) & (e ⇿ c I d))
identify e.g. Jennifer Lawrence identifies b as a dog iff Jennifer Lawrence knows that b isᵍ aʳ dog.
r identifyᵃ IDF ((b IDF c) ≡ ((((d I e) & (d~=c)) → (b KN ¬f)) & (b KN g) & (((d I e) & (d=c)) → (b KN f)))) & (f ⇿ d=c) & (e=thing) & (g ⇿ h RF c)
identifyᵃ e.g. I can identify Aristotle iff if d is a thing d is not identical to Aristotle then I know that d is not identical to Aristotle and if d is a thing and d is identical to Aristotle then I know that d is identical to Aristotle.
r ignorant of IG ((b IG c) ≡ (((b B c) & (c ~ J d)) ⊻ (b J e c) ⊻ (b UA c))) & (d=true) & (e=agnostic about)
ignorant of e.g. The above is a technical definition since 'b is ignorant of c' means 'b does not know c'.
a imaginary (b=imaginary) & ((c J b TO d) ≡ ((c M e) & (d W e) & (d B f) & (c ~ E g) & (f ⇿ c E g))) & (g=real world)
a imaginaryᵃ (b=imaginaryᵃ) & ((c J b) ≡ (((d W e) ≡ ((e B f) & (f W g) & (c M g))) & (d J h) & ((j I k) → (f INM m ~ P j)))) & (m=earth) & (h=many) & (f ⇿ c E n) absolutely
imaginaryᵃ e.g. all ghosts are imaginaryᵃ
n implicitⁱ relationshipⁱ (b=implicitⁱ relationshipⁱ) & ((c I b) ≡ ((c W d) & (c W e))) & (d I f) & (e I g) & (f=subjectⁱ) & (g=intransitive verb)
aa important
a improbable (b=improbable) & ((((c E d T e) & (f SUT e)) → (g J b T f)) ≡
improbable (((c E d T e) & (f A e)) → (((h W j) ≡ ((g P j) & (d H j) & (j I k))) &
improbable ((m W n) ≡ ((g ~ P j) & (d H j) & (j I k))) & (m J o) & (h J p)))) &
improbable (k=offspring) & (p=many) & (o=few)
rxtab in IN ((b IN c) ≡ ((b I d) & (c W b))) & (d=point) point ab region
ratab inᵇ INB ((bINBc) ≡ ((cWb) & (bId))) & (d=moment) moment period
inᵇ e.g. That moment occurred inᵇ 1978.
r inᶜ INC ((b INC c) → ((d S c) & (e I c) & (f I c) & (g I c) & (h I c) & (j I c) & (k I c) & (m I c) & (n I c) & (j L k) & (j AB m) & (e F j) & (f F k) & (k AB n) & (f AB h) & (e L f) & (e AB g) & (g F m) & (j L b) & (j AB b) & (b L k) & (k AB b) & (b L n) & (b AB n) & (m L b) & (b AB m)))
inᵈ e.g. this circle is in this other circle
ratso inᵈ IND ((bINDc) → (((bWd) & (dIe)) ≡ (cWd))) & (e=point) ab region ab region
a indefinite (b=indefinite) & (((c J b) & (d J e)) → (d J f)) &
indefinite (d ⇿ ((g J h) & (h J j)) ≡ (c J h)) &
indefinite (f=contingent) & (e=consistent) & (j=intrinsic)
a indexical
nk individual (b=individual) & ((c I b) ≡ ((d I e) → ((d ~ I c) & (d ~ H c) & (d ~ J c) & (d ~ N c)))) & ((c I b) ≡ ((c H f) & (f I g) & (f W h))) & (e=thing) & (g=definiendum) & (h==)
individual e.g. Get rid of the above soon.
a individualᵃ (b=individualᵃ) & ((c J b) ≡ (c I d)) & (d=individual)
nk individualᵇ (b=individualᵇ) & ((c I b) ≡ ((d I e) → ((d ~ I c) & (d ~ H c) & (d ~ J c) & (d ~ N c)))) & ((c I b) ≡ ((c W f) & (f I g) & (f W h))) & (e=thing) & (g=definiendum) & (h==)
individualᵇ e.g. The above is the new definition.
individualᵖ e.g. I saw an individual car drive by iff I saw a particular car drive by.
n individualᵖ (b=individualᵖ) & ((c I b) ≡ ((c W d.e) & (d S f) & (e B g) & (c N h))) & (h=2)
individualᵖ e.g. An individualᵖ is nothing more than one particle with one mind.
as individualᵖ (individualᵖ=particular)
e inductively (justify)
r inᵉ E ((b E c) ≡ ((b P c) & (c J d))) & (d=real) & (c=real world)
inᵉ e.g. b is inᵉ reality iff b exists at possible world d and d is real
r inᶠ INF ((b INF c) ≡ ((b I d) & (c I d) & ((c W e) ≡ (b W e)))) & (d=period) period period
inᶠ e.g. January exists inᶠ winter.
r infer INF (infer =INF) & ((b INF c d) ≡ ((b B e) & (e ⇿ ¬c d ~ J f))) & (f=consistent)
n inferenceᶜ (b=inference) & ((c I b) ≡ (d FLC c))
n inferenceⁿ (b=inference) & ((c I b) ≡ (d FL c))
aa infinite (b=infinite) & (((c J b) & (c PCP b)) ≡ ((d I b) → (((e G d) & (d G f)) ⊻ ((e A d) & (d A f)) ⊻ ((e L d) & (d L f)) ⊻ ((e AB d) & (d AB f)) ⊻ ((e F d) & (d F f)))))
as infrequent (infrequent = improbable)
r inᵍ ING (b=relationship) & ((c ING d) ≡ (((c AW e) ⊻ (e AW c)) & (d W c) & (d I b))) word relationship
inᵍ e.g. red isᵉ inᵍ p and p isᵇ this is red iff b (exists) atʷ z and p has z.
r inʰ INH (b INH c) ≡ ((b W d) ≡ ((d O e) & (c W e))) body_ sensorium
rxtab inᵏ INE (b INE c) ≡ ((b S d) & (c W d)) particle region
inᵏ e.g. a particle isᵉ inᵉ this region
ratab inᵐ INM (bINMc) ≡ (((bWd) ≡ ((dSe) & (cWe))) & (bWf) & (fSg) & (hWg)) m whole ab region
inᵐ e.g. this body is inᵐ this regionᵃ
rs inᵖ INP (inᵖ = I)
inᵖ e.g. Obama isʳ inˢ the Democratic Party
r inʳ INR (inʳ =INR) & ((b INR c) ≡ ((b S d) & (d IN c))) particle ab region
inʳʳ INRR ((bINRRc) & (cJd)) ≡ (bJd)
inʳʳ e.g. She is inʳʳ aʳ miserable condition iff she isᵃ miserable.
r inˢ INS (b INS c) ≡ ((b W d) & (d INM c)) person ab region
inˢ e.g. Russell is inˢ London. (the subject must be a person)
rs inside (inside = INE)
n instanceᵘ (b=instanceᵘ) & (((c I b) & (c OF d)) ≡ ((c J d) ⊻ (c N d) ⊻ (c I d) ⊻ (c H d)))
inᵗ e.g. I drank Coke inᵗ September means I did not drink coke at every point in time in September just part of the time.
rs inᵗ (inᵗ=during)
r intend IT (b IT c) ≡ ((b CS d) & (b B e) & (e ⇿ d CS c))
n intersection (b=intersection) & (((c I b) & (c H d.e)) ≡ (((c W f) ≡ ((d W f) & (e W f)))))
ns interval (interval=period)
r inᵛ INV ((b INV c) ≡ ((b CA c) & (d W b.e) & (e W f) & (f I g))) & (c ⇿ f MOV) & (g=bodyᶜ)
inᵛ e.g. The mind is inᵛ the bodyᶜ.
involuntary (b=involuntary) & (((pJb) & (pTOc Tf)) ≡ (((cEXPd Te) & (fAe) & (gBTWf e) & (gJh)) → (cBp Tf))) & (h=shortʲ)
ra isᵉ EX ((bEX) ≡ (bJc)) & (c=extant)
ns itemⁿ (itemⁿ=objectⁿ)
a joyful (b=joyful) & ((c J b TO d T e) ≡
joyful ((d EXP c) &
joyful (((d B f) & (g A e)) → (d DN h T g)))) &
joyful (f ⇿ (j I k) → ((h PRV j) ⊻ (d DN j))) &
joyful (h ⇿ d EXP c) & (k=relationship)
joyful e.g. b is joyful to d atᵗ [moment] p iff d experiences b atᵗ [moment] p and if d believes that there is no relationship j which d wants to be actual and which d experiencing b would prevent j from being actual then d desires to experience b at any time thereafter
joyful In simpler terms, b is pleasurable to d iff d experiences b and so long as d believes that experiencing b in no way prevents d from obtaining what d wants, then d wants to experience b again.
rs judge (judge = believe)
judge e.g. sometimes 'judge' has a more narrow sense such as when we judge a person to have a certain property and usually it is a property of a certain type.
r justify JU ((b JU c) ≡ (((b W d) →
justify ((d I e) & ((d J f) ⊻ (d J g)))) &
justify ((h J j) ⊻ (h J k)))) &
justify (h ⇿ (b J m) & (d ~ J m)) & (e=premise) & (m=true) &
justify (j=impossible) & (n=improbable) & (g=assumed) & (f=obvious)
ns kind (kind=type)
ns kindⁿ (kindⁿ = natural kind)
aa large
n lastᵐ (b=lastᵐ) & ((c J b) ≡ ((d I e) → (d ~ A c))) & (e=moment) moment moment
a lastⁿ (b=lastⁿ) & ((c J b) ≡ ((d I e) → (d ~ G c))) & (e=integer) number number
r later than LAT (later than =LAT) & ((b LAT c) ≡ (b A c))
r left ofᵃ LEF (left ofᵃ =LEF) & ((b LEF c) ≡ ((b S d) & (d L c))) particle point
r left ofᵐ LEH (left ofᵐ =LEH) & ((b LEH c) ≡ ((b S d) & (c S e) & (d L e))) particle particle
r leftᵃ LFT (b LFT c) ≡
leftᵃ ((b L c) ⊻
leftᵃ ((c S d) & (b L d)) ⊻
leftᵃ ((c W d) & (c I j) & (((e I f) & (d W e) & (e S g)) → (b L g))) ⊻
leftᵃ ((b S h) & (h L c) & (b I f)) ⊻
leftᵃ ((b S h) & (c S d) & (h L d)) ⊻
leftᵃ ((b S h) & (b I f) & (c W d) & (((e I f) & (d W e) & (e S g)) → (b L f))) ⊻
leftᵃ ((b W d) & (b I j) & (((e I f) & (d W e) & (e S g)) → (b L c))) ⊻
leftᵃ ((b W d) & (b I j) & (c S k) & (((e I f) & (d W e) & (e S g)) → (b L k))) ⊻
leftᵃ ((b W d) & (c W m) & (b I j) & (c I j) & (((e I f) & (d W e) & (n I f) & (m W n) & (n S p) & (e S q)) → (p L q))))
r lesser than LSS (lesser than =LSS) & ((b LSS c) ≡ (c G b))
r lie LI (lie about=LI) & ((b LI c d) ≡ ((b STT c d) & (b ~ B c) & (b D e) & (e ⇿ d B c)))
a likely (b=likely) & (c ⇿ d Q e) & (((d R f) → (c J b)) ≡
likely (((g W h) ≡ ((h I d) & (h Q e))) &
likely ((j W k) ≡ ((k I d) & (k ~ Q e))) &
likely (g N m) & (j N n) & (o ID m / (m + n)) & (o J p))) &
likely (p=many)
ra live LV
ra lives LV
a locationsᵉ (b=locationalᵉ) & (((c H d) & (d J b)) ≡ ((d E e) & (e ⇿ c INM f T g))) extrinsic
na logic
a logically contingent (b=logically contingent) & ((c J b) ≡ ((c J d) & (¬c J d))) & (d=consistent)
a logically impossible (b=logically impossible) & ((c J b) ≡ ((¬c P d) & ((e I f) → (c ~ P e)))) & (f=possible world)
a logically necessary (b=logically necessary) & ((c J b) ≡ ((c J d) & (¬c ~ J d))) & (d=consistent)
as logically true (logically true=logically necessary)
rs make (make = cause)
r make sense MK (bcde=MK) & (f=senseᵃ) & (g=grammatical) & ((h MK f) ≡ ((h J g) & (h J e))) & (e=consistent)
n material part (b=material part) & (c=sentient being) & (((d I b) & (d OF e)) ≡ ((d S f) & (e W d) & (e I c)))
n material whole (b=material whole) & (c=material part) & (((d I b) & (d OF e)) ≡ ((e I c) & (d W e)))
as meaningful (meaningful=significant)
r meansʳ MN ((b MN c BY d TO e T f) ≡ ((b CA d T f) & (b D g))) & (g ⇿ (e EXP d T f) → ((e B c T h) & (h SUT f))) person relationship
meansʳ e.g. The policeman means 'you should stop' by waving his hand to you at time g iff the policeman causes 'waving his hand' and he desires that if you experience 'waving his hand at moment g, then you will believe 'you should stop' at moment h and moment h succeeds g.
a mental (b=mental) & ((c J b) ≡ (c B d))
aa mentalᵃ (c=mentalᵃ) & ((bJc) ≡ ((eBb) ⊻ (bBd)))
a mentalᵇ (b=mentalᵇ) & ((c J b) ≡ (d B c))
a mentalᵉ (b=mentalᵉ) & (((c H d) & (d J b)) ≡ ((c INM e) & (f B g) & (g W c))) extrinsic
r misinterpret MSI (b MSI c T d) ≡ ((b ADS e T f) → ((b B c T d) & (c ~ E g) & (d SUT f) & (c ⇿ e R h)))
momentᵉ e.g. Eddington's confirmation of Einstein's theory was the greatest momentᵉ of his life.
ns momentᵉ (momentᵉ=event)
r move MOV ((b MOV c d) ≡ ((b W e.f) & (g A h) & (f D j T h))) & (j ⇿ (e MV c h d g)) person
r moveᵃ MV (b MV c d e f) ≡ ((b INM c T d) & (b INM e T f) & (f A d)) material whole
e mustʷ
mustʷ e.g. I must win this game. (mustʷ expresses a wish)
ns name (name = word)
r named NA (b NA c) → (c RF b)
h nameʰ (has) (((b H c) & (c I d)) ≡ (b NA c)) & (d=name)
e necessarily (b=necessarily) & ((c V b) ≡ (c J d)) & (d=necessary)
e necessarilyᵉ (entails) (b=necessarilyᵉ) & ((b V c) ≡
necessarilyᵉ (entails) (((d I e) → (f.g ~ P d)) &
necessarilyᵉ (entails) (f.h P j) & (k.g P m) & (k.h P n) & (k.h P o))) &
necessarilyᵉ (entails) (f ⇿ p V q) & (h ⇿ r V q) & (k ⇿ ¬p V q) & (g ⇿ ¬r V q) &
necessarilyᵉ (entails) (p ⇿ s J t) & (r ⇿ u J t) &
necessarilyᵉ (entails) (t=true) & (q=contingently) & (b ⇿ s EN u) &
necessarilyᵉ (entails) (e=possible world)
necessarilyᵉ (entails) e.g. it is necessary that s is contingently true entails u is contingently true is equivalent to s and u exists at a possible world, not s and u exist at a possible world, not s and not u exist at a possible world and s and not u exists at no possible world and s and u are both contingent
r negation of NEG ((b NEG c) ≡ (b c ~ J e)) & (e=consistent)
a negative biconditional (b=negative biconditional) & ((c HA b d) ≡ (~ c IFF d)) & ((b=negative biconditional) → (b I e)) & (e=relationᵖ)
negative biconditional e.g. b is left of c has a negative biconditional relation with c is right of b
negative conditional (b=negative conditional) & ((c HA b d) ≡ (~ c → d)) & ((b=negative conditional) → (b I e)) & (e=relationᵖ)
negative conditional e.g. b is greater than 4 has a negative conditional relation with b is less than 7
e never (b=never) & ((c V b) ≡ ((d I e) → (c ~ T d))) & (e=moment)
ra next to NXT
ns non actual relationship (non actual relationship=possible relationship)
n non-relationship (b=non-relationship) & ((c I b) ≡ (((d I e) → (c ~ W d)) & ((f I g) → (c ~ W f)))) & (g=relation) & (e=relatum)
n non-whole (b=non-whole) & ((c I b) ≡ ((d I e) → (c ~ W d))) & (e=thing)
rs not different from (not different from = is)
rs not distinct from (not distinct from = is)
ns numberⁿ (numberⁿ=natural number)
na objectᵍ (c=objectᵍ) & (((p W b.d) & (d I e) & (d J h) & (p J f) & (b I g) & (b AL d)) → (b I c)) & (e=relation) & (h=non-spatio-temporal) & (g=noun) & (f=basicʳ) grammatical
n objectᵖ (b=objectᵖ) & ((c I b) ≡ (((c W d) ≡ ((d S e) & (d H f) & (f I g))) & (h J j))) & (j=dead) & (g=energy) physical
objectᵖ e.g. A rock isᵍ anʳ objectᵖ. This definition applies to dead groups of particles. 'Thingᵖ' is synonymous with 'objectᵖ' and we see this in sentences like 'you should treat workers as people not things'.
obvious (b=obvious) & (((p W c) & (c J e.f.g.h.j TO k)) → (p J b TO k)) & (e=large) & (f=bright) & (g=slow) & (h=close) & (j=familiar)
ra of OF
r ofᵃ OFA (ofᵃ =OFA) & (((b OFA c) & (d ACP c)) ≡ (b J d))
ofᵃ e.g. She's a woman ofᵃ courage and courageous is the adjective counterpart of courage iff she's courageous.
r ofᶠᵐ OFFM ((b OFFM c) ≡ (b I c)) & ((b OFFM c) → ((b I d) & (c I e))) & (d=familial partᵃ) & (e=concept)
ofᶠᵐ e.g. This tiger is part ofᶠᵐ the species 'tiger'.
n offspring (b=offspring) & (((c I b) & (d H c)) ≡ ((((c T e) & (d T f)) → (e SUT f)) & (c.d U g) & ((c J h T e) → (d J h T f)))) & (h=real)
offspring e.g. b is an offspring of d iff b exists at a time succeeding the time in which d exists, b and d exist in the same possible universe and it is not the case that b is real at the time when it exists and d is not real at the time when it exists
r ofⁱ OFI (((b I c) & (b OFI d)) ≡ (((b W e) → (e I d)) & (b W f) & (f I d))) & (c=whole)
ofⁱ e.g. A group b ofⁱ tigers is over there is equivalent to if e is a member of b then e is a tiger
r on ON (on =ON) & ((b ON c) ≡ ((b AB c) & (b NXT c)))
on e.g. I have hair on the top ofˢ my head.
ns oneᵖ (oneᵖ = person)
r opposite to OPP (opposite to =OPP) & ((b OPP c) ≡ ((d FRA b) & (d FRA c))) & (d I e) & (b I f) & (c I f) & (e=point) & (f=natural whole)
r outside of OT (outside of =OT) & ((b OT c) ≡ ((b ~ IN c) & (b S d)))
ra own OWN
r ownⁱ OWI (ownⁱ =OWI) & ((b OWI c) → (c M d))
ownⁱ e.g. Disney ownsⁱ Mickey Mouse. Here what Disney owns is something which exists in imaginary space.
ra owns OWN
n pain unit (b=pain unit) & ((c H d b TO e) ≡ ((e B f) & (e DJ g h))) &
pain unit (f ⇿ (j H k) & (k I b) &
pain unit ((m W n) ≡ ((c H n) & (n I b))) & (m N d) &
pain unit ((o I p) → (((e DN o) ⊻ (j PRV o)) & ((e DN o) ⊻ (c PRV o))) &
pain unit ((q W r) ≡ ((r I s) & (e EXP k DUR r))) &
pain unit (q N t) & (m N u) & (u=x))) &
pain unit (h ⇿ (e EXP c DUR v) & (v EG r)) &
pain unit (g ⇿ e EXP q) &
pain unit (s=period) & (p=relationship)
pain unit e.g. relationship j has k pain units iff
pain unit b believes that relationship f has e and e is a pain unit
pain unit and group g has pain unit h iff relationship j has h
pain unit and it is not the case that relationship j or f prevent b from experiencing a relationship which they desire
pain unit and group t has member u iff u is a period and b experience e during u
pain unit and b desires to experience every member in t just as much as they desire to experience j
pain unit and each period that belongs to t is equal in length to the period q in which b experiences j
pain unit and the number of periods that belong to t is equal to the number of pain units that belong to g
a painful (b=painful) & ((c J b TO d T e) ≡
painful ((d EXP c) &
painful (((d B f) & (g A e)) → (d DN ¬h T g))) &
painful (f ⇿ (j I k) → ((¬h PRV j) ⊻ (d DN j)))) &
painful (h ⇿ d EXP c) & (k=relationship)
painful e.g. b isᵃ painful to d atᵗ [moment] p iff d experiences b atᵗ [moment] p and if d believes that there is no relationship j which d wants to be actual and which d not experiencing b would prevent j from being actual then d does not desire to experience b at any time thereafter
painful In simpler terms, b is painful to d iff d experiences b and so long as d believes that experiencing b in no way helps d obtain what d wants, then d does not want to experience b again.
n partᶜ (b=partᶜ) & ((c I b) ≡ ((d W c) ≡ (d CSE e)))
partᶜ e.g. Women were an important partᶜ ofᶜᵖ the reform movement. What this means is that several things caused the reform which form a real group and the actions of women were a member of that group.
ns partᵈ (partᵈ=property part)
ns partᶠ (partᶠ=familial part)
a partially materialᵃ (property) (b=partially materialᵃ) & ((c J b) ≡ ((d W e) & (e I f) & (d J c) & (d W g) & (g I h))) & ((c I b) → (c I j)) & (j=property) & (f=bodyᶜ) & (h=mind)
partially materialᵃ (property) e.g. Because instances of the concept 'doglike' have both a mind and a body, 'doglike' is a partially material concept.
a partially materialᵇ (concept) (b=partially materialᵃ) & ((c J b) ≡ ((d W e) & (e I f) & (d I c) & (d W g) & (g I h))) & (f=bodyᶜ) & (h=mind)
ns partially spiritual (partially spiritual = partially materialᵇ)
n particleⁿ (b=particleⁿ) & ((c I b) ≡ ((c S d) & (c H e) & (e I f))) & (f=energy)
a past (b=past) & (c=now) & ((d J b) ≡ (c A d))
ns pastᵉ (pastᵉ=entire past)
rs perceive (perceive = absorbᵍ)
a percent of the time (b=percent of the time) & (((((c I b) & (d E e T f) & (g SUT f)) → (h OC c T g)) ≡
percent of the time (((d E e T f) & (g SUT f) &
percent of the time ((j W k) ≡ ((h P k) & (e H k) & (k I m))) &
percent of the time ((n W o) ≡ ((h ~ P k) & (e H k) & (k I m))) &
percent of the time (j N p) & (n N q))
percent of the time
percent of the time (c ID p / p + q)))) &
percent of the time (m=offspring)
percent of the time e.g. If d is actual at world e at time f and g succeeds f then h occurs c percent of the time at time g is equivalent to if d is actual at time f and g succeeds f then the set j contains all those offspring of e in which h exists and set n contains all those offspring of e in which h does not exist and the quantity of set j divided by the quantity of set j + the quantity of set n is equal to c.
n period (contiguous) (b=period) & ((c I b) ≡ (((d A e) & (f A d)) ≡ (c W d)))
n periodᵈ (discontiguous) (b=periodᵈ) & ((c I b) ≡ ((c W d) → (d I e))) & (e=moment)
periodᵈ (discontiguous) e.g. Humans probably never use this expression but it is consistent to say that Richard Burton was married to Elizabeth during a period and the period was separated by a period in which they were not married.
n person (b=person) & (c=personhood) & ((d I b) ≡ (d H c))
n personhood (b=personhood) & ((c H b) → ((d B e) & (d D f) & (c W d) & (c W g) & (g I h))) & (j=person) & (h=bodyᶜ)
n phenomenon (b=phenomenon) & (c=event) & ((d I b) ≡ ((d I c) & (e I d)))
phenomenonᵉ e.g. Phenomenon also has a wider usage which may even be synonymous with 'thing' which we are ignoring for the moment.
ns phenomenonᵉ (phenomenonᵉ=event)
ns phenomenonᵗ (phenomenonᵗ = thing) thing
phenomenonᵗ e.g. The laws of physics govern biological phenomenaᵗ.
ra phrase
n physical law (b=physical law) & (c=situation) & ((d I b) ≡ ((d P e) & (d I c)))
n physical spatial part (b=physical spatial part) & (((c I b) & (c OF d)) ≡ ((c S e) & (d S f) & (e IN f)))
physical spatial part e.g. The White House is part of Washington DC.
n physical spatial whole (b=physical spatial whole) & (((c I b) & (c OF d)) ≡ ((c S e) & (d S f) & (f IN e)))
n physical temporal part (b=physical temporal part) & (((c I b) & (c OF d)) ≡ ((c T e) & (d T f) & (e DUR f)))
physical temporal part e.g. The Battle of the Somme was a temporal part of WWI.
n physical temporal whole (b=physical temporal whole) & (((c I b) & (c OF d)) ≡ ((c T e) & (d T f) & (f DUR e)))
aa physically contingent (b=physically contingent) & ((((c P d U e T f) & (d J g) & (h A f)) → (j J b U e T h)) ≡
physically contingent (((c P d U e T f) & (d J g) & (h A f)) →
physically contingent (((k W m) ≡ (j P m U e T h)) &
physically contingent ((n W o) ≡ (j ~ P o U e T h)) &
physically contingent (d HAO m) & (d HAO o) & (j P p) & (j ~ P q) &
physically contingent ((p J g) ⊻ (q J g))))) & (g=real)
a physically impossible (b=physically impossible) & ((((c P d U e T f) & (d J g) & (h A f)) → (j J b U e T h)) ≡ (((c P d U e T f) & (c J k) & (d J g) & (c HAO m) & (h A f) & (j J k) & (j P m U e T h)) → (m ~ J g))) & (g=real) & (n=possible world) & (k=naturalˢ)
physically impossible e.g. If it is real in this universe in Dec 1963 that JFK is dead then if k is a moment after Dec 1963 it is physically impossible that JFK is alive at k in this universe means if it is real in this universe in Dec 1963 that JFK is dead, and if k is a moment after Dec 1963 and if m is a possible world in this universe and if m is the offspring of the world in which JFK is dead and if JFK is alive at world m, then m is not real.
a physically necessary (b=physically necessary) & (((c E d T e) & (f SUT e)) → (g J b T f)) ≡ (((c E d U h T e) & (f SUT e)) → (g E j T f))
a physicalˢ (b=physicalˢ) & ((c J b) ≡ (((d H e) & (e I f) & (d S g)) → (c W g))) & (f=energy)
physicalˢ e.g. space is physical iff if d is a particle with energy existing at point f, then point f is in physical space
ns place (place=region)
n plan (b=plan) & ((c I b) ≡ ((c D d) & (c B e))) & (d ⇿ c CAU b) & (e ⇿ d P f)
a positively infiniteᵍ (b=positively infiniteᵍ) & (((c J b) & (c PCP d)) ≡ (((e I d) & (e N f)) → ((g I d) & (g N h) & (h G f))))
as precise (precise = certain)
a predicable (b=predicable) & (((c J b) & (c OF d)) ≡ (e J f)) & (c=Re) & (e ⇿ d R g) & (f=consistent)
predicable e.g. 'is white' is predicable of a car iff it is consistent that a car is white
n predicate (b=predicate) & ((c I b) ≡ ((b W d.e) & (d I f) & (e I g))) & (f=relation) & (g=object)
r predicates PRC ((b PRC c) ≡ (c R d)) & (b=Rd)
predicates e.g. 'is an actress' predicates Barbara Stanwyck
n premise (b=premise) & (((c I b) & (c FOR d)) ≡ (((e I f) → (e NF c)) & (g W c) & (g EN d)))
a probable (b=probable) & ((((c E d T e) & (f SUT e)) → (g J b T f)) ≡ (((c E d T e) & (f A e)) → (((h W j) ≡ ((g P j) & (d H j) & (j I k))) & ((m W n) ≡ ((g ~ P j) & (d H j) & (j I k))) & (h J o) & (m J p)))) & (k=offspring) & (p=many) & (o=few)
n proper name (b=proper name) & ((c I b) ≡ ((c I d) & (c RF e) & (e I f))) & (d=word) & (f=individual)
n property bearer (b=property bearer) & ((c I b) ≡ (c H d))
n propertyᵒ (b=propertyᵒ) & ((c I b) ≡ (d OWN c))
ns proposition (proposition = relationship)
ra punish
a purely materialᶜ (conceptⁿ) (b=purely materialᶜ) & ((c J b) ≡ ((d W e) & (d I c) & (e I f) & ((g I h) → (d ~ W g)))) & ((c J b) → (c I j)) & (j=conceptⁿ) & (f=bodyᶜ) & (h=mind)
purely materialᶜ (conceptⁿ) e.g. 'Rock' is a purely material concept, since a single mind does not govern a single rock.
n quantity (b=quantity) & ((c I b) ≡ ((d W e) & (d N c)))
quantity e.g. 4 is the quantity of the Beatles
n ratio (b=ratio) & (((b I c) & (b OF c d)) ≡ ((c N e) & (d N f) & (b=e / e + f)))
real time e.g. I only use testimony of Stalin that was written down in real time, not testimony that was written down years after the fact.
ra real time
a realᵃ (b=realᵃ) & ((c J b) ≡ ((d I e) & (d OF c) & (f I e) & (f OF d) & (f J g))) & (g=realᵖ)
a realᵇ (b=realᵇ) & ((c J b) ≡ ((d I e) & (d OF c) & (d J f))) & (f=realᵖ)
a realᶜ (b=realᶜ) & ((c J b) ≡ (c HCE d))
a realᵍ (b=realᵍ) & ((c J b) ≡ ((d W e) ≡ ((e I f) & (e H g) & (g J h)))) & (h=unintentionalᵍ) group
es really (really=actually)
a realᵖ (b=realᵖ) & ((c J b) ≡ ((c P d) & (d J e) & (c I f))) & (e=real) & (f=particular) & (d=real world)
a realᵘ (b=realᵘ) & ((c J b) ≡ ((c J d) & (c I e))) & (d=consistentⁿ) & (e=universal)
ra refer RF ((b RF c) ≡ ((d CAS b) & (d D p))) & (p ⇿ (e EXP q) → (r J h)) & (q ⇿ (b J f INM g) & (r ⇿ e C c) & (h=physically necessary) & (f=extant) word
r referᵖ REF ((b REF c d) ≡ (d RF c)) & (d ⇿ (b MOV c e)) person person
referᵖ e.g. Frege referred to the Morning Start with d iff Frege moved his mouth in a d way such that it caused his interlocutor to think about the Morning Star.
n region (b=region) & ((c I b) → (((c W d) → ((c W e) & (d e J f))) & (c W g.h) & (g h J f))) & (f=contiguous)
n regionᵃ (old) (b=regionᵃ) & ((c I b) → ((c W d) & (e S d))) group of points
n relationⁿ ((b I c) ≡ ((d W b.c) & (b I e) & (c I f) & (d I g) & (d J h))) & (e=noun) & (f=relation) & (g=word) & (h=root)
relationⁿ e.g. 'conjunction' is a relationⁿ whereas 'and' is a relation. 'Going' is a relationⁿ whereas 'go' is a relation.
n relationᵖ ((b RE c) → ((b I d) & (c I d))) & (d=relationship) & ((b RE c) → (b HA e c)) & ((e=biconditionalʳ) ⊻ (e=conditionalʳ) ⊻ (e=negative conditional) ⊻ (e=contrapositiveʳ) ⊻ (e=modus tollensʳ) ⊻ (e=null relation) ⊻ (e=negative biconditional))
n relationship (b=relationship) & ((c I b) ≡ ((c W d) & (c W e) & (c W f) & (d I g) & (e I g) & (f I h))) & (g=relatum) & (h=relation)
na relationshipᵖ (c=relationship) & ((bIc) ≡ ((bId) ⊻ (bIe))) & ((bIc) ≡ (bTf)) & (d=explicitᵉ relationshipᵉ) & (e=implicitⁱ relationshipⁱ)
relationshipᵖ e.g. The reason why a relationship is a subject of a locative relationship is because each relationship must be located in one of the three alethic spaces: imaginary, probabilistic, abstract.
rxd resemble RES (b c RES) ≡ (b SMD c)
rs resembles RS (resembles=SMD)
a respectᵖ
respectᵖ e.g. b is similar to c in every respect
r rightᵃ of RIG (rightᵃ of =RIG) & ((b RIG c) ≡ ((b S d) & (c L d)))
r rightᵇ RTE (rightᵇ of=RTE) & ((b RTE c) ≡ ((c S d) & (d L b)))
r rightᵐ of RGT (rightᵐ of =RGT) & ((b RGT c) ≡ ((b S d) & (c S e) & (e L d)))
e roughlyᵃ (arranged) (b=arranged) & (c=roughlyᵃ) & (d ⇿ e J b) & ((d V c) → (f J g)) & (g=likely)
r satisfy STS (((b STS c) & (c I d) & (c=Re)) ≡ (b R e)) & (d=predicate)
satisfy e.g. Marilyn satisfies the predicate 'is an actress' iff Marilyn is an actress.
a second orderᵘ (b=second orderᵘ) & ((c J b) ≡ ((d I e) & (d OF c) & (d I f))) & (f=universal) & (e=instanceᵘ)
r seem SM (seem =SM) & (b=reality) & ((c SMTO d) ≡ ((b I d) & (b B e) & (e ~ E b)))
r self-identical SID ((b T c SID b T d) ≡ (e.f.g V h)) &
self-identical (f ⇿ b H j T c) & (g ⇿ k RF b) &
self-identical (e ⇿ b H m T d) & (h=essentially)
rs sense (sense=EXP)
n sensorium (b=sensorium) & ((c I b) ≡ ((c W d) ≡ (e O d)))
ns sentenceʳ (sentenceʳ=relationship)
ns sentient being (sentient being = living being)
aa sexless
r share SHR (share=SHR) & ((b g SHR e) ≡ (((b H e) & (g H e)) ⊻ ((b OWN e) & (g OWN e)) ⊻ ((b W e) & (g W e))))
a shortʲ (b=shortʲ) & ((c J b) ≡ (((c W d) ≡ (d T e)) & (c N f) & (f J g))) & (g=fewⁿ)
a significant (b=significant) & ((c J b) ≡ ((c J d) & (c J e))) & (e=grammatical) & (d=consistent)
n similar (b=similar) & ((c d J b) ≡ (((e W f) ≡ ((c.d H f) & (f I g) & (f J h))) & ((j W k) ≡ ((c H k) & (k I m) & (k J h) & (d ~ H k))) & (e N n) & (j N o) & (n G o))) & (h=intrinsic)
r similar SM ((c SM b) ≡ ((d I e) & (d H f.h) & (p.q V j) & ((k W g) ≡ ((g I m) & (d W g))) & (k N r) & (r G s))) & (j=essentially) & (e=intersection) & (m=essential unit) & (s=50) & (p ⇿ c HG f) & (q ⇿ b HG h)
r similar (to degree d) SM (((c SM b d) & (d I e)) ≡ (((f W h) ≡ ((c.b H h) & (h J p))) & (f N d))) & (e=degree) & (p=intrinsic)
r similarᵈ (to degree d) SMD ((b SMD c d) ≡ ((e I f) & (e H g.h) & (j.k V m) & (d I n) & ((o W p) ≡ ((p I q) & (e W p))) & (o N d) & (d G r))) & (m=essentially) & (f=intersection) & (q=essential unit) & (n=degree) & (r=50) & (j ⇿ b HG g) & (k ⇿ c HG h)
r simultaneous with SIM (simultaneous with =SIM) & ((b SIM c) ≡ ((b T d) & (c T d)))
simultaneous with e.g. Saratoga was simultaneous with the Revolution iff Saratoga existed at 1777 and the Revolution existed at 1777.
n situation (b=situation) & ((c I b) ≡ ((c W d) → ((d I e) & (d W f) & (f I g) & (f J h)))) & (h=naturalʳ) & (g=subject) & (e=relationship)
n soft reality ((b=soft reality) ≡ ((b HM c) ≡ (c I d))) & (d=possible world)
ns sort (sort=type)
nub space (b=space) ≡ ((c S d) ≡ (b W d))
ns spaceʳ (spaceʳ=region)
ns species (species=kind)
r state STT ((g STT h) ≡ ((g CAU j) & (j RF h)))
state e.g. The house was in a state of delapidation iff the house had the property delapidation.
ns state (state=property)
ns state of affairs (state of affairs = situation)
n statement (b=statement) & ((c I b) ≡ ((c RF d) & (d I e))) & (e=relationship)
rs states (states = STT)
ns subgroup (subgroup=type)
n subject (b=subject) & (c=relation) & (d=noun) & ((e I b) ≡ ((f I c) & (e I d) & (f AW e)))
subject e.g. Of course, identifying the subject is much more difficult than simply being the first noun before the relation but currently we are only working with very simple sentences and this definition works for now, but of course will have to be revised when we tackle more complex grammatical forms.
na subjectᵍ (c=subjectᵍ) & (((p W b.d) & (d I e) & (d J h) & (p J f) & (b I g) & (d AL b)) → (b I c)) & (e=relation) & (h=non-spatio-temporal) & (g=noun) & (f=basicʳ) grammatical
n subset (b=subset) & (((c I b) & (c OF d)) ≡ (((c W e) → (d W e)) & ((d W f) → ((g P h) & (¬g P j))))) & (g ⇿ c W f)
a succeeding (b=succeeding) & ((c J b d) ≡ (c A d)) moment moment
a succeedingⁿ (b=succeedingⁿ) & ((c J b d) ≡ (c G d)) number number
r succeeds SC (succeeds =SC) & ((b SC c) ≡ ((g N f) → ((f G b) ⊻ (c G f)))) number number
r succeedsᵃ ((b SCA c) ≡ ((b W d) & (d J e) & (c W f) & (f J g) & (d SUT f))) & (e=first) & (g=last) period period
r succeedsᵒ SUO ((h SUO d) ≡ ((d OCT f) & (h OCT e) & (h I j) & (d I j) & (e A f) & ((k I j T m) → ((e A m) ⊻ (m A f))))) event event
succeedsᵒ e.g. The alarm went off for the third time, i.e., the third alarm succeeded the second alarm.
r succeedsᵖ SCP ((h SCP d ASC f) ≡ ((h I f DUR e) & (d I f DUR j) & (e SCA j))) positions positions
succeedsᵖ e.g. Jefferson suceeds Adams as President.
r succeedsˢ SCD natural object natural object
succeedsˢ e.g. The third cargo department (from the right) was the damaged one, i.e. the third department succeeds the second. The third god on the totem pole was Hermes, i.e. Hermes succeeds another god on the totem pole. Earth is the third planet from the Sun, i.e. Earth succeeds Venus.
r succeedsᵗ SUT ((h SUT d) ≡ ((f I e) → ((h A f) ⊻ (d A f)))) & (e=moment) moment moment
succeedsᵗ e.g. Moment 3 succeeds moment 4.
as supernatural (supernatural=divine)
n superset (b=superset) & (((c I b) & (c OF d)) ≡ (((d W e) → (c W e)) & ((c W f) → ((g P h) & (¬g P j))))) & (g ⇿ d W f)
n symbol (b=symbol) & ((c I b) ≡ (c RF d))
symbol e.g. It is very important to point out that from the definition alone you cannot prove that 'dog' is a symbol, whether or not 'dog' is a symbol is a contingent fact and in our system the allowable letters and words are simply listed.
a teleologically contingent (b=teleologically contingent) & (((c D d) & (e J b c)) ≡ (((c ~ CAU e T f) → ((d P g T h) & (d ~ P j))) & ((c CAU e T f) → ((d P k T h) & (d ~ P m T h)))))
a teleologically impossible (b=teleologically impossible) & (((c D d) & (e J b c)) ≡ (((c CAU e T f) → (d ~ P g T h)) & ((c ~ CAU e T f) → ((d P j T h) & (d ~ P k T h)))))
a teleologically necessary (b=teleologically necessary) & (((c D d) & (e J b c)) ≡ (((c ~ CAU e T f) → (d ~ P g T h)) & ((c CAU e T f) → ((d P j T h) & (d ~ P k T h)))))
a teleologically possible (b=teleologically possible) & (c=teleologically necessary) & (d=teleologically contingent) & ((e J b) ≡ ((e J c) ⊻ (e J d)))
r tend toward TD
na term (term = word)
na thing (c=thing) & ((b I c) ≡ ((b I d) ⊻ (b I e))) & (d=universal) & (particular)
thing e.g. 'thing' is the concept of which everything is an instance of and that includes literally everythig, i.e., God, particles, numbers, contradictions, logical connectives, myths, adverbs, etc. For the definition of 'thing' in a more narrow sense, see 'thingᵖ'
ns thingᵖ (thingᵖ = objectᵖ) physical
r think TK (b TK c) ≡ ((b B d) & (d W c))
r thinkᵈ TKD (b TKD c) ≡ (c E d) God
thinkᵈ e.g. If God thinksᵈ p then p exists in reality
rs thinkᵗ TKT (TKT = B)
thinkᵗ TKT e.g. 'I thinkᵗ you are smart' spoken with a certain tone of voice implies I think it is true that you are smart and I'm certain of it, using a different tone of voice it means that you're less certain of it.
nu time (b=time) ≡ ((c T d) ≡ (b W d))
time e.g. something occurs during a period or at a moment iff those moments or periods are a member of time.
ra took TAK
ns trait (trait=property)
a true* (b=true) & ((c J b Q d) ≡ ((c J e Q d) & (c I f))) & (f=relationship) & (e=extant)
n truth value (b=truth value) & ((c I b) ≡ ((c=true) ⊻ (c=false) ⊻ (c=absurd)))
r try TRY ((b TRY c INM d) ≡ ((b R e INM d) & (b B f))) & (f ⇿ ((b R e INM d T g) & (h A g)) → ((j J k) & ((j W m) ≡ (c P m))))
n type (b=type) & (((c I b) & (c OF d)) ≡ ((e I c) → (e I d)))
a unacceptable (b=unacceptable) & ((c J b TO d) ≡ ((e CRR c) & (f ⇿ e ~ P g) & (d D f)))
r unaware UA ((b UA c T d) ≡ (((e I f) & (d A e)) → ((b ~ B g T e) & (b ~ B c) & (b ~ B ¬c)))) & (g ⇿ c ⊻ ¬c) & (f=moment)
as uncertain (uncertain = vague)
a unintentionalᵍ (b=unintentionalᵍ) & (((c J b) & (d H c)) ≡ (e ~ CS f)) & (f ⇿ e B g) & (g ⇿ d H c)
a unique (b=unique) & ((c J b) ≡ ((d I e) → (d ~ I c))) & (e=thing)
ra universe
ra utters UT
a vague (b=vague) & (((c J b) & (c TO d T e)) ≡ ((d B f T e) & (g A e) & (d B h))) & (j=reality) & (e=now) & (f ⇿ c E j) & (k ⇿ d ~ B f T g) & (h ⇿ k P m)
na vague pairs
a vagueᵒ (of a physical object) (b=vagueᵒ) & (((c J b) & (c TO d)) ≡ ((d ~ KN e) & (f J g))) & (e ⇿ f I c) & (g=natural)
ra variable space relation SP (bSPc) ≡ ((bLc) ⊻ (bRTc) ⊻ (bABc) ⊻ (bBLc) ⊻ (bFc) ⊻ (bBHc))
e very (b=very) & (c ⇿ d J e) & (((f J e) & (c V b)) → ((d N g) & (f N h) & (g G h) & ((j W k) ≡ (k BTW g h)) & (j J e))) & (e=many)
e veryᶠ (b=veryᶠ) & (c ⇿ d J e) & (((f J e) & (c V b)) → ((d N g) & (f N h) & (g G h) & ((j W k) ≡ (k BTW g h)) & (j J e))) & (e=few) few
r violate VIO (violate =VIO) & (b=action) & ((c VIO d) ≡ ((e D f) & (f ⇿ d ~ P g) & (c CRR d) & (c E b) & (c I b)))
n void (b=void) & ((c I b) ≡ ((c S d) & ((e I f) → (c ~ H e)))) & (e=energy)
ra went GO (GO = MOV)
rs wereᵉ (wereᵉ = EX)
while e.g. I played the banjo while he played the fiddle.
rs while (while=DUR)
whileⁿ e.g. I talked to him for a whileⁿ.
ns whileⁿ (whileⁿ=period)
aa white
ns wholeᶜ (discouraged) (wholeᶜ = conceptⁿ)
wholeᶜ (discouraged) e.g. This use of 'whole' comes from Quine and I have never seen the word used this way by the layman. The difference between a whole and a concept is that in the sentence I belong to whole b I cannot infer I am a b whereas from I belong to concept b I can infer that I am a b. In elementary school when we were put into classes we could say I am a 4th grader. In the lower grades we even gave the classes names like 'tiger' and we could say I am a tiger. So when Quine says there are more age-wholes than grade-wholes in the white school he is using 'whole' in the sense of 'class'.
n wholeˡ (living) (b=wholeˡ) & ((c I b) ≡ ((c W d) → ((d I e) ⊻ (d I f)))) & (e=mind) & (f=wholeᵐ)
ns wholeᵐ (material) (wholeᵐ = bodyᶜ)
n wholeⁿ (numerical) (b=wholeⁿ) & ((c I b) ≡ ((c W d) → (d I e))) & (e=number)
n wholeˢ (spatial) (b=wholeˢ) & ((c I b) ≡ ((c W d) → (d I e))) & (e=point)
ns wholeᵗ (temporal) (wholeᵗ = periodᵈ)
ns wholeᵛ (verbal) (wholeᵛ = word)
rs within (within = IN)
rs withinᵉ (withinᵉ = INE)
r wonder whether WN ((b WN c) ≡ ((b B d) & (b B e))) & (d ⇿ c ⊻ ~ c) & (e ⇿ c J f) & (f=contingent)
wonder whether e.g. I wonder whether there are dogs iff I believe that either there are dogs or there are not dogs
r wonder whetherᵃ WNA ((b WN c) ≡ (b B d)) & (d ⇿ (c J e) ⊻ (c ~ J e)) & (e=consistent)
wonder whetherᵃ e.g. I wonder whether there are infinite twin primes iff I believe that either it is consistent that there are infinite twin primes or I believe that it is contradictory that there are infinite twin primes
n word (b=word) & ((c I b) → (((c W d) → (d I e)) & (c I f))) & (f=symbol) & (e=letter)
word e.g. We have barely done any research on the relation AW. We only adopted it into our system so as to disambiguate the words 'in' and 'after' since words can be after other words and words are said to be 'in' sentences. Consequently, our definition of word is not meant to be taken as definitive.
ns numbersⁱ (numbersⁱ = integer)
.
. Words not of metaphysical interest
.
na 7pm
na apple
a aristotelianᶜ (b=aristotelianᶜ) & (c=aristotle) & ((d J b) ≡ (d SML c))
n aristotelianness ((b=aristotelianness) ≡ (c H b)) & (c=Aristotle)
aristotelianness e.g. For our current purposes we're not trying to prove anything complicated about Aristotle, so the only necessary condition we need for now is that he is a person.
rs atᵈ (atᵈ = in)
ra ate ATEP
ra ate from ATF
ra ateᵖ ATEP
na ball
na bank
ra bark BRK
ra barks BRK
na beer
ra born BRN
ra bornᵖ BRNP
na boy
ra broke BRK
na cake
na car
na carpet
na casablanca
na cat
aa caught
n chlorophyll (b=chlorophyll) & ((c I b) → (c ~ I d)) & (d=plastic)
aa cold
na courtyard
ra danced DNC
nc dog (b=dog) & (c=doglike) & ((d I b) ≡ (d J c))
ac doglike (b=dog) & (c=doglike) & ((d J c) ≡ ((d I b) & (d W e) & (d W f) & (e I g) & (f I h))) & (h=mind) & (g=bodyᶜ)
n doglikeˢ (b=doglikeˢ) & (c=doglike) & ((d J b) ≡ ((e J c) & (e SML d)))
na dogness (c=dogness) & ((bHc) ≡ (bJd)) & (d=doglike)
na door
ra drank DRK
ra drink DRK
ra drinks DRK
na earth
ra eat from ATF
ra echolocate ECH
ra echolocates ECH
na eiffel tower (c=eiffel tower) & (d=) & ((bJc) → (bJd))
na eye (c=eye) & (d=natural) & ((bJc) → (bJd))
aa fanatical
n female (b=male) & (c=female) & ((d J c) → (d ~ J b))
a feminine (b=feminine) & (c=female) & ((d J b) ≡ (d I c))
a feminineˢ (b=feminineˢ) & (c=female) & (((d J b) & (e I c)) ≡ (d SML e))
n flower (b=flower) & ((c I b) → ((c W d) & (d I e))) & (e=chlorophyll)
na french
na girl
aa green
na hamlet
na head (e=natural) & (d=head) & ((bHd) → (bJe))
na heaven
a hirsute (b=hirsute) & (c=hairs) & ((d J b S e T f) ≡ (d W g h c S e T f))
na home
na home
na house
na hydrogen
n kennedy (b=kennedy) & ((c I b) → (b I d)) & (d=family)
a kennedyᵃ (b=kennedyᵃ) & (c=kennedy) & (((d J b) & (e I d)) ≡ (e I c))
ra kiss KS
ra kissed KS
ra love LOV
na male (b=male) & (c=female) & ((dJb) → (d~Jc))
na mammal
n man (b=man) & ((c I b) ≡ ((c I d) & (c J e))) & (d=person) & (e=male)
na mars
na monte carlo
na moon
aa mortal
na movie
na munich
na murder
na nazi
na north america
na paris (c=paris) & (d=) & ((bIc) → (bJd))
na party
n pocketwatch
na pyramid
na rain
ra raining RAI
ra rains RAI
ra ran RN
ra reads RD
a red (b=red) & ((c J b) → (c INM d))
n redness (b=redness) & ((c H b) ≡ (c J d)) & (d=red)
na reptile
aa rewarded
a ridiculous
na rocky mountains
na round square
na russian
ra saw SEE
ra see SEE
na set theory
ra shed SHD
ra sleep SLP
ra sleeps SLP
aa smart
r smell SME ((b SME) → (b J c)) & (c=material)
r smells SME ((b SME) → (b J c)) & (c=material)
ra speak SPK
na speed limit
ra spied on SPD
ra spies on SPD
ra spoke SPK
na sprite (c=sprite) & (d=) & ((bJc) → (bJd))
ra standing STD
ra studied STD
ra study STD
n table
na table (c=table) & (d=) & ((bJc) → (bJd))
ra talked TLK
ra teach TCH
na teacher
ra teaches TCH
na tear
ra top
na uk prime minister
na us president
na van
na water
na wine
n woman (b=woman) & ((c I b) → ((c I d) & (c J e))) & (d=person) & (e=female)
na wrinkle
.
. Plurals
.
ns beers (beers=beer)
ns cars (cars=car)
ns cats (cats=cat)
ns concepts (concepts=concept)
ns dogs (dogs=dog)
ns eiffel towers (eiffel towers=eiffel tower)
ns eyes (eyes=eye)
ns girls (girls=girl)
ns groups (groups=whole)
ns groupsᶜ (groupsᶜ=groupᶜ)
ns hydrogens (hydrogens=hydrogen)
ns instances (instances=instance)
ns integers (integers=integer)
ns mammals (mammals=mammal)
ns members (members=part) s
ns membersⁱ (membersⁱ=instance) s
ns men (men=man) s
ns minds (minds=mind) s
ns moments (moments=moment)
ns moons (moons=moon) s
ns particles (particles=particle)
ns parts (parts=part)
ns people (people=person)
ns points (points=point)
ns pyramids (pyramids=pyramid)
ns reptiles (reptiles=reptile)
ns russians (russians=russian)
ns tears (tears=tear)
ns thoughts (thoughts=thought)
ns us presidents (us presidents=us president)
ns wholes (wholes=whole)
.
. People
.
nun ada ((b=ada) → (b I c)) & (c=woman)
nun aristotle ((b=aristotle) → (b I c)) & (c=man)
nun diane ((b=diane) → (b I c)) & (c=woman)
nun jack ((b=jack) → (b I c)) & (c=man)
nun jessica ((b=jessica) → (b I c)) & (c=woman)
nun jfk ((b=jfk) → (b I c)) & (c=man)
nun jim ((b=jim) → (b I c)) & (c=man)
nun julius caesar ((b=julius caesar) → (b I c)) & (c=man)
nun kiera knightley ((b=kiera knightley) → (b I c)) & (c=woman)
nun leibniz ((b=leibniz) → (b I c)) & (c=man)
nun marilyn ((b=marilyn) → (b I c)) & (c=woman)
nun plato ((b=plato) → (b I c)) & (c=man)
nun russell ((b=russell) → (b I c)) & (c=man)
nun socrates ((b=socrates) → (b I c)) & (c=man)
nun xenothon ((b=xenothon) → (b I c)) & (c=man)
.
. Alternative Word Forms
.
ra amᵉ EX (am=EX)
ra areᵉ EX (areᵍ=EX)
ra beᵃ J (beᵃ=J)
r belongs to BLN (b BLN c) ≡ (c W b)
rai desires D (desires=D)
ra has H (has=H)
rs haveᵐ (haveᵐ=hasᵐ)
rai haveʷ W (haveʷ=W)
rai isᵃ J (isᵃ=J)
rai isᵍ I (isᵍ=I)
ra owns OWN (owns=OWN)
r participated PRTC (b PRTC c) ≡ ((d CAUS c) ≡ (d W b))
r participates PRTC (b PRTC c) ≡ ((d CAUS c) ≡ (d W b))
ra shares SHR (shares=SHR)
rai thinks TK (thinks=TK)
ra was = (was = =)
ra wasᵃ J (wasᵃ=J)
ra wasᵉ EX (wasᵉ = EX)
ra wasᵍ I (wasᵍ=I)
.
. Artificial Words
.
. The following definitions' sole purpose is to test out unusual sentence forms
.
n apple (b=apple) & ((c I b) ≡ ((c T d) & (d Z e) & (e W f))) & ((c I b) → ((c P g) & ((h I j) → ((m GG n) & (p W q) & (q T p))))) & (j=soap)
r atc PP ((b PP c) ≡ ((b S d) & (d H e))) & (f=soap) & (g=bread) & (h=cherry) & (j=milk)
n cherry (b=cherry) & ((c I b) ≡ ((c T d) & (d Z e) & (e W f))) & ((c I b) → ((c PP g) & ((h I j) → ((m GG n) & (p W q) & (q T p))))) & (j=soap)
r dayy HH (b HH c) → ((b T d) & (b ~ TT c))
r dayz DD (b DD c) ≡ ((b ~ V c) & (b HH c))
r frontt FF ((b FF c) → ((d Z c) & (b I e) & (b I f) & (c W g) & (h T d))) & (f=soap) & (j=bread) & (k=cherry) & (m=milk)
r greaterm GM (b GM c) ≡ (((b B d) & (d ~ A b) & (e W f)) ⊻ ((b V d) & (b A d) & (f T e)))
r greaterm GG (b GG c) ≡ (((b B d) & (d ~ A b) & (e W f)) ⊻ ((b V d) & (b A d) & (f T e)) ⊻ (f TT d))
r greatern GH (b GH c) ≡ (((b B d) & (d ~ A b) & (e W f)) ⊻ ((b V d) & (b A d) & (f T e)) ⊻ (b TT c))
r hey UU (b UU c) ≡ (((h B j) & (j C k) & (k D m)) → (m ~ K k))
r heyy GJ (b GJ c) ≡ (((c B d) & (b T e)) → (c A e))
r heyyy GK (b GK c) ≡ ((((c B d) & (b T e)) → (c A e)) & (c W e))
r know KN ((b KN c) ≡ ((b B c) & (c J d) &
know ((((e W f) ≡ (f SMD c g)) &
know ((h W j) ≡ (j SMD c k)) &
know (g G k) &
know ((m W n) ≡ ((e W n) & (b B n) & (n J d))) &
know ((o W p) ≡ ((e W p) & (b IG p))) &
know (m N q) & (o N r) & (s ID q / q + r) &
know ((t W u) ≡ ((h W u) & (b B u) & (u J d))) &
know ((v W w) ≡ ((h W w) & (b IG w))) &
know (t N x) & (v N y) & (z ID x / x + y))
know
know (s GR z)) &
know (((c::1 SMD c d::1) & (d::1 GRA e::1 f::1)) → ((b B c::1) & (c::1 J d))))) &
know (e::1=degree) & (d=true) & (b::1=SMD)
a naturalʳ (b=naturalʳ) & ((c J b) ≡ ((c W d) & (d I e) & ((d INM f) ⊻ (d INR g)))) & (e=subject) relationship
r youu GM (b GM c) ≡ (((b B c) & (d ~ A b) & (e W f)) ⊻ ((b V c) & (b A d) & (f T e)) ⊻ (b TT c))
'