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0
It isᵃ consistent that there isᵉ a mind which isᵃ mental
1
It isᵃ contradictory that there isᵉ a mind which isᵃ not mental
* Frege wrote: Ideas cannot be seen or touched, cannot be smelled, nor tasted, nor heard. The Thought: An Inquiry.
2
It isᵃ consistent that no thought smells
3
It isᵃ contradictory that there isᵉ a thought which smells
4
It isᵃ contradictory that someᵖ thoughts smell
5
It isᵃ contradictory that there isᵉ a mind which smells
6
It isᵃ consistent that no mind smells
7
It isᵃ contradictory that someᵖ minds smell
8
It isᵃ consistent that no thought desires something
9
It isᵃ contradictory that there isᵉ a thought which desires something
10
It isᵃ contradictory that someᵖ thoughts desire something
* Below, we believe thoughts are groups because they are composed of the members relata and relations.
11
It isᵃ contradictory that no thought isᵍ aʳ group
12
It isᵃ consistent that there isᵉ a thought which isᵍ aʳ group
13
It isᵃ consistent that every thought isᵃ mentalᵇ
14
It isᵃ contradictory that there isᵉ a thought which isᵃ not mentalᵇ
15
It isᵃ contradictory that someᵖ thoughts areᵃ not mental
16
It isᵃ contradictory that someᵖ thoughts areᵍ moments
17
It isᵃ consistent that no thought thinks something
18
It isᵃ contradictory that someᵖ thoughts think something
19
It isᵃ contradictory that there isᵉ a thought which thinks something
20
It isᵃ consistent that every mind isᵃ mental
21
It isᵃ contradictory that no mind isᵃ mental
22
It isᵃ contradictory that there isᵉ a thought which isᵃ physical
** Time
23
It isᵃ consistent that there isᵉ a moment which exists inᵇ time
24
It isᵃ contradictory that there isᵉ a moment which does not exist inᵇ time
25
It isᵃ contradictory that there isᵉ a moment which isᵃ physical
26
It isᵃ contradictory that there isᵉ a thought which isᵍ aʳ moment
27
It isᵃ consistent that no thought isᵍ aʳ moment
**Space
28
It isᵃ consistent that I do not have a point
29
It isᵃ contradictory that I have a point
30
It isᵃ contradictory that there isᵉ a point which smells
31
It isᵃ contradictory that someᵖ points smell
32
It isᵃ contradictory that there isᵉ a point which thinks someᵖ thoughts
33
It isᵃ contradictory that someᵖ points think something
34
It isᵃ contradictory that there isᵉ a point which isᵃ physical
35
It isᵃ contradictory that someᵖ points areᵃ physical
** Individuals, Concepts, Groups, Instances, Classes, Parts, Wholes
* In: There are more age_classes than grade_classes in the White School. We just replace this by: There are more age_wholes than grade_wholes in the White School, where an age_whole is the individual composed of all pupils in the school who were born during a single calendar year, and a grade_whole is an individual composed of all pupils who receive equally advanced instruction. (Quine and Goodman)
* We believe Quine is using words against their conventional use in order to advance his agenda against classes. He is saying that 'individuals' can be wholes. In one senses individuals are groups in that I am an individual and I am a group/whole of particles. In another sense, b is a group iff b is not an individual. So Quine is just using the word 'whole' which we denote as 'wholeᶜ' in a way that is simply synonymous with class or concept.
36
It isᵃ consistent that no wholeᶜ isᵍ anʳ individual
37
It isᵃ contradictory that there isᵉ a wholeᶜ which isᵍ anʳ individual
*An example of a whole which is not an individual would be the whole composed of the numbers 2 and 3, and a whole which is an individual would be a person.
38
It isᵃ consistent that there isᵉ a whole which isᵍ not anʳ individual
39
It isᵃ consistent that there isᵉ a whole which isᵍ anʳ individual
40
It isᵃ consistent that JFK isᵍ aʳ Kennedy and JFK isᵍ partᶠ of the Kennedyᵃ family
41
It isᵃ contradictory that JFK isᵍ aʳ Kennedy and JFK isᵍ not partᶠ of the Kennedyᵃ family
42
It isᵃ contradictory that JFK isᵍ not aʳ Kennedy and JFK isᵍ partᶠ of the Kennedyᵃ family
43
It isᵃ contradictory that JFK isᵍ aʳ Kennedy and JFK isᵍ not partᶠ of the Kennedyᵃ family
* Class A is included in Class B may be rephrased as: Everything that is an A is a B. (Quine and Goodman)
* At the time Quine and Goodman had something against classes, so they showed that we could built a consistent language without mentioned classes. However, when one says that two different objects have the relation isᵍ to the same object b, then an object needs to be given a name. So B in Quine and Goodman's sentence is still a class, it's just that the word 'class' does not appear in the sentence.
44
It isᵃ consistent that something isᵍ aʳ cake and cake isᵍ aʳ class
45
It isᵃ contradictory that something isᵍ aʳ cake and cake isᵍ not aʳ class
* Universals are real entitie,, but they do not have to be, in fact cannot be distinct from their instances. (Morganti)
46
It isᵃ consistent that a universal isʳ distinct from itsᵃ instance
47
It isᵃ contradictory that a universal isʳ not distinct from itsᵃ instance
48
It isᵃ consistent that there isᵉ a universal which isʳ distinct from itsᵃ instances
49
It isᵃ contradictory that there isᵉ a universal which isʳ not distinct from itsᵃ instances
50
It isᵃ consistent that theʳ conceptⁿ cat isᵍ not aʳ cat
51
It isᵃ contradictory that theʳ conceptⁿ cat isᵍ itselfʳ aʳ cat
52
It isᵃ consistent that dog isᵍ aʳ conceptⁿ
53
It isᵃ contradictory that dog isᵍ not aʳ conceptⁿ
54
It isᵃ consistent that point isᵍ not aʳ partially materialᵃ conceptⁿ
55
It isᵃ contradictory that point isᵍ aʳ partially materialᵃ conceptⁿ
56
It isᵃ consistent that this dog isᵍ not aʳ conceptⁿ
57
It isᵃ contradictory that this dog isᵍ aʳ conceptⁿ
58
It isᵃ consistent that thought isᵍ not aʳ partially materialᵃ conceptⁿ
59
It isᵃ contradictory that thought isᵍ aʳ partially materialᵃ conceptⁿ
60
It isᵃ consistent that Russell isᵍ aʳ man
61
It isᵃ contradictory that Russell isᵍ not aʳ man
62
It isᵃ consistent that this cat isᵍ aʳ cat
63
It isᵃ contradictory that this cat isᵍ not aʳ cat
64
It isᵃ contradictory that I desire a conceptⁿ
65
It isᵃ consistent that I do not desire a conceptⁿ
66
It isᵃ contradictory that there isᵉ a conceptⁿ which isᵍ anʳ individualᵃ thing
67
It isᵃ consistent that no conceptⁿ isᵍ anʳ individualᵃ thing
68
It isᵃ contradictory that thisⁿ isᵍ aʳ particular dog and thisⁿ is theʳ conceptⁿ dog
69
It isᵃ consistent that thisⁿ isᵍ aʳ particular dog and thisⁿ is not theʳ conceptⁿ dog
70
It isᵃ contradictory that redness isᵍ not aʳ particular conceptᵇ and thisⁿ has redness
71
It isᵃ consistent that redness isᵍ aʳ particular conceptᵇ and thisⁿ has redness
72
It isᵃ contradictory that this particular man hasᵐ someᵖ instances
73
It isᵃ consistent that this particular man does not haveᵐ someᵖ instances
74
It isᵃ contradictory that this particular woman isᵍ not anʳ instanceⁱ of theʳ conceptⁿ woman
75
It isᵃ consistent that this particular woman isᵍ anʳ instanceⁱ of theʳ conceptⁿ woman
76
It isᵃ consistent that theʳ conceptⁿ mind isʳ not inʳ this house
77
It isᵃ contradictory that theʳ conceptⁿ mind isʳ inʳ this house
** Abstractᵗ
* Locke wrote: [T]his whole mystery of genera and species, which make such a noise in the schools, and are with justice so little regarded out of them, is nothing else but abstract ideas
* What Locke calls 'species' as in 'this is a mammal', we call 'universal'. So he believes that 'mammal' is an abstractᵗ term. There are other things which are abstract and which are not the names of species, such as a particular point. But for now, this sense of the word 'abstract' can be formalized.
78
It isᵃ contradictory that I ate an apple and apple isᵍ not anʳ abstractᵗ term
79
It isᵃ consistent that I ate an apple and apple isᵍ anʳ abstractᵗ term
** Number
80
It isᵃ consistent that every numberⁱ does not smell
81
It isᵃ contradictory that there isᵉ a numberⁱ which smells
82
It isᵃ contradictory that someᵖ numbersⁱ smell
83
It isᵃ contradictory that there isᵉ a numberⁱ which isᵃ physical
84
It isᵃ contradictory that someᵖ numbersⁱ areᵃ physical
* We can never, to take a crude example, decide by means of our definitions whether any concept has the number Julius Caesar belonging to it, or whether that same familiar conqueror of Gaul is a number or is not. - Frege, Foundations of Arithmetic [198, _56]
85
It isᵃ contradictory that Julius Caesar isᵍ aʳ numberⁱ
86
It isᵃ consistent that Julius Caesar isᵍ not aʳ numberⁱ
87
It isᵃ contradictory that a moment isʳ greater than a numberⁱ
88
It isᵃ consistent that a moment isʳ not greater than a numberⁱ
** Property
* Zalta wrote: Categories hardly ever share crucial properties with the objects categorised. The category of redness is not red, the notion of foreignness is not foreign, the notion of length is not long. [Zalta 42]
89
It isᵃ consistent that theʳ propertyⁿ redness isᵃ not red
90
It isᵃ contradictory that theʳ propertyⁿ redness isᵃ red
* It appears natural to say that the causal role played in the world by each particular is defined as soon as that particular exists. However, if such a causal role is everything that is required to establish whether the particular is or is not similar to another particular, it follows that the existence of the particular (as the particular with such and such qualitative/causal features) is sufficient for establishing facts of similarity or dissimilarity. (Morganti)
* What Morganti is trying to do is to show that properties do not exist, though he does not say that explicitly in the above passage. All he does is replace 'property' with 'causal role'. In the following we show that to replace talk of 'properties' with talk of 'causal roles' does not make properties go away.
91
It isᵃ consistent that Russell hasᶜʳ theʳ causal role 'can hit' and theʳ causal role 'can hit' isᵍ aʳ propertyⁿ
92
It isᵃ contradictory that Russell hasᶜʳ theʳ causal role can hit and theʳ causal role can hit isᵍ not aʳ propertyⁿ
93
It isᵃ contradictory that there isᵉ a property which isᵍ an individual
94
It isᵃ consistent that no propertyⁿ isᵍ an individual
95
It isᵃ contradictory that theʳ propertyⁿ redness isʳ composed of someᵖ particles
96
It isᵃ consistent that theʳ propertyⁿ redness isʳ not composed of someᵖ particles
**Sameness
97
It isᵃ consistent that Plato hasᵗ the same teacher as Xenothon and Xenothon hasᵗ a teacher
98
It isᵃ contradictory that Plato hasᵗ the same teacher as Xenothon and Xenothon does not haveᵗ a teacher
99
It isᵃ consistent that Plato hasᵗ the same teacher as Xenothon and thatᵈ teacher is Socrates and Socrates teaches Xenothon
100
It isᵃ contradictory that Plato hasᵗ the same teacher as Xenothon and thatᵈ teacher is Socrates and Socrates does not teach Xenothon
101
It isᵃ consistent that I saw the same movie as you and thatᵈ movie was Casablanca and I saw Casablanca
102
It isᵃ contradictory that I saw the same movie as you and thatᵈ movie was Casablanca and I did not see Casablanca
103
It isᵃ consistent that Leibniz andᶜ Aristotle ate from the same cake and thisⁿ was thatᵈ cake and Leibniz ate from thisⁿ
104
It isᵃ contradictory that Leibniz andᶜ Aristotle ate from the same cake and thisⁿ was thatᵈ cake and Leibniz did not eat from thisⁿ
** Every, no, anyⁿ
105
It isᵃ consistent that every partᵖ of the large house isᵃ white and the door isᵍ aʳ partᵖ of the large house and the door isᵃ white
106
It isᵃ contradictory that every partᵖ of the large house isᵃ white and the door isᵍ aʳ partᵖ of the large house and the door isᵃ not white
107
It isᵃ contradictory that no partᵖ of the large house isᵃ white and the door isᵍ aʳ partᵖ of the large house and the door isᵃ white
108
It isᵃ consistent that I saw everyone who drank something in the van and Leibniz drank something in the van and I saw Leibniz
109
It isᵃ contradictory that I saw everyone who drank something in the van and Leibniz drank something in the van and I did not see Leibniz
110
It isᵃ consistent that I love nothing which isʳ about murder and Hamlet isʳ about murder and I do not love Hamlet
111
It isᵃ contradictory that I love nothing which isʳ about murder and hamlet isʳ about murder and I love Hamlet
112
It isᵃ consistent that I love anything which isʳ about logic and set theory isʳ about logic and I love set theory
113
It isᵃ contradictory that I love anything which isʳ about logic and set theory isʳ about logic and I do not love set theory
114
It isᵃ consistent that no green man fromᵇ cold Mars, lives onʳ Earth and Jim isᵍ aʳ green man bornᵖ onʳ Mars and Jim does not live onʳ Earth
115
It isᵃ contradictory that no green man fromᵇ cold Mars, lives onʳ Earth and Jim isᵍ aʳ green man bornᵖ onʳ Mars and Jim lives onʳ Earth
116
It isᵃ consistent that every green man fromᵇ Mars drinks and Jim isᵍ aʳ green man bornᵖ onʳ Mars and Jim drinks
117
It isᵃ contradictory that every green man fromᵇ Mars drinks and Jim isᵍ aʳ green man bornᵖ onʳ Mars and Jim does not drink
118
It isᵃ consistent that everyone who spies on Leibniz, willʳ beᵃ rewarded and Russell spied on Leibniz and Russell wasᵃ rewarded
119
It isᵃ contradictory that everyone who spies on Leibniz, willʳ beᵃ rewarded and Russell spied on Leibniz and Russell wasᵃ not rewarded
120
It isᵃ consistent that everyone who spies on a nazi in Munich, willʳ beᵃ rewarded and Russell spied on a nazi in Munich and Russell wasᵃ rewarded
121
It isᵃ contradictory that everyone who spies on a nazi in Munich, willʳ beᵃ rewarded and Russell spied on a nazi in Munich and Russell wasᵃ not rewarded
122
It isᵃ consistent that anyone who breaks the speed limit, willʳ beᵃ caught and Marilyn broke the speed limit and Marilyn wasᵃ caught
123
It isᵃ contradictory that anyone who breaks the speed limit, willʳ beᵃ caught and Marilyn broke the speed limit and Marilyn wasᵃ not caught
124
It isᵃ consistent that I did not shed a tear and I did not shed someᵖ tears
125
It isᵃ contradictory that I did not shed a tear and I shed someᵖ tears
126
It isᵃ consistent that every woman atᶜ the party drank and Jessica wasʳ atᶜ the party and Jessica isᵍ aʳ woman and Jessica drank
127
It isᵃ contradictory that every woman atᶜ the party drank and Jessica wasʳ atᶜ the party and Jessica isᵍ aʳ woman and Jessica did not drink
128
It isᵃ consistent that every woman atᶜ the party drank and Jessica wasᵍ aʳ woman atᶜ the party and Jessica drank
129
It isᵃ contradictory that every woman atᶜ the party drank and Jessica wasᵍ aʳ woman atᶜ the party and Jessica did not drink
130
It isᵃ consistent that no partᵖ of the large house isᵃ white and the door isᵍ aʳ partᵖ of the large house and the door isᵃ not white
131
It isᵃ consistent that I love everyone who reads Leibniz and Russell reads Leibniz and I love Russell
132
It isᵃ contradictory that I love everyone who reads Leibniz and Russell reads Leibniz and I do not love Russell
133
It isᵃ consistent that I did not shed anyⁿ tears and I shed no tears
134
It isᵃ contradictory that I did not shed anyⁿ tears and I shed a tear
** Possession
135
It isᵃ consistent that my dog drank some water and I own a dog
136
It isᵃ contradictory that my dog drank some water and I do not own a dog
137
It isᵃ consistent that I saw my dog and I own a dog
138
It isᵃ contradictory that I saw my dog and I do not own a dog
139
It isᵃ consistent that I saw your dog and you do own a dog
140
It isᵃ contradictory that I saw your dog and you do not own a dog
141
It isᵃ consistent that your dog drank some water and you do own a dog
142
It isᵃ contradictory that your dog drank some water and you do not own a dog
143
It isᵃ consistent that I saw his dog and he owns a dog
144
It isᵃ contradictory that I saw his dog and he does not own a dog
145
It isᵃ consistent that his dog drank some water and he owns a dog
146
It isᵃ contradictory that his dog drank some water and he does not own a dog
147
It isᵃ consistent that I took the dog's ball and the dog owns a ball
148
It isᵃ contradictory that I took the dog's ball and the dog does not own a ball
149
It isᵃ consistent that the dog's ball isᵃ red and the dog owns a ball
150
It isᵃ contradictory that the dog's ball isᵃ red and the dog does not own a ball
151
It isᵃ consistent that Ada's ball isᵃ red and Ada owns a ball
152
It isᵃ contradictory that Ada's ball isᵃ red and Ada does not own a ball
153
It isᵃ consistent that I took Ada's ball and Ada owns a ball
154
It isᵃ contradictory that I took Ada's ball and Ada does not own a ball
155
It isᵃ consistent that I took a dog's ball and there isᵉ a dog which owns a ball
156
It isᵃ contradictory that I took a dog's ball and no dog owns a ball
** Miscellaneous
* In the following there are certain syntactical constructions which we are trying to get a grip on.
157
It isᵃ consistent that Leibniz andᶜ Aristotle studied logic and Leibniz studied logic
158
It isᵃ contradictory that Leibniz andᶜ Aristotle studied logic and Leibniz did not study logic
159
It isᵃ consistent that Russell has theʳ propertyⁿ courage and Russell isᵃ courageous
160
It isᵃ contradictory that Russell has theʳ propertyⁿ courage and Russell isᵃ not courageous
161
It isᵃ consistent that Russell has courage and Russell isᵃ courageous
162
It isᵃ contradictory that Russell has courage and Russell isᵃ not courageous
163
It isᵃ contradictory that the door isᵃ not large and the door which isᵃ green isᵃ large
164
It isᵃ consistent that this door isᵃ not large and this door which isᵃ green isᵃ not large
** Manyⁿ and Few
* 'manyᵈ' means more than one, 'manyⁿ' is the contradictory of few
165
It isᵃ contradictory that I did not shed a tear and I did not shed manyⁿ tears
166
It isᵃ consistent that I shed a tear and I shed manyⁿ tears
167
It isᵃ contradictory that manyⁿ minds smell
168
It isᵃ contradictory that manyⁿ points smell
169
It isᵃ contradictory that manyⁿ numbersⁱ areᵃ physical
170
It isᵃ contradictory that manyⁿ points think something
171
It isᵃ contradictory that manyⁿ points areᵃ mental
172
It isᵃ contradictory that manyⁿ points areᵃ physical
173
It isᵃ contradictory that few numbersⁱ smell
174
It isᵃ contradictory that few thoughts areᵃ not mental
175
It isᵃ contradictory that I have few points
176
It isᵃ contradictory that I do not have manyⁿ points
* Generalᵗ, which is just a synonym of abstractᵗ
177
It isᵃ contradictory that I ate an apple and apple isᵍ not aʳ generalᵗ term
178
It isᵃ consistent that I ate an apple and apple isᵍ aʳ generalᵗ term'